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The World Wars and Interwar Period 



The first half of the 20th century saw the world entangled in two global wars, conducted with an unprecedented brutality. The First World War developed from a purely European affair into a conflict involving the colonies and the United States. It altered Europe's political landscape and shifted the power balance worldwide. In World War II, the nations of Europe, Asia, the Americas, and Africa were drawn into the conflict through the aggressive policies of an ambitious Nazi Germany. The war was conducted with the most up-to-date weapons technology and cost the lives of more than 55 million people. The Holocaust, the systematic annihilation of the European Jews, represented an unparalleled moral catastrophe for modern civilization.


Pablo Picasso "Weeping Woman", 1937




Under the Swastika: Nazi Germany



see also: National Socialist Art
collection: John Heartfield


With Hitler's takeover of power, a twelve-year totalitarian regime began in Germany. In 1939 it brought war and racist terror to the world. The "Fuhrer"-led dictatorship attempted to reform state and society to conform to National Socialist ideology. Despite the Nazis' brutal suppression of the opposition and single-minded removal of the Jewish population from national life, the world underestimated the nature of the regime and its contempt for human life, and thus World War II erupted.


Control over Society

Propaganda, ideological persuasion, and violence were the methods with which the Nazis controlled and manipulated the German population.


An anarchistic juxtaposition of state and party systems, rather than the hierarchically organized power bloc as suggested by propaganda, characterized the Nazi state. Hitler remained the only point of reference of rivaling power groups. Alongside the terror, successes in foreign affairs and well-directed social measures strengthened the Fuhrer's status among the German people.

Thanks to 10 governmental job creation, unemployment sank by half within two years.

By 1939, the massive armament programs intended to make the economy capable of war had even caused a labor shortage.

To pacify the coercively organized economic laborers in the "German Workers' Front," the workers received somewhat extravagant wages, protection against job loss, and paid vacations.

The 11 Nazi party organization Kraft durch Freude—Strength through Joy—organized events and inexpensive trips.

10 Unemployed people are put to work building
the motorway. 1933

11 Poster promoting a Kraft durch
Freude holiday: "You too can travel
now," 1938

Thus the regime kept an eye on the "national comrades" even during their time off. The European day of the labor movement, May 1, became a public holiday known as the "Day of National Labor."

Special attention was given to the indoctrination of youth.

All youth groups were absorbed by the 7 Hitler Youth and the 12 League of German Girls.

7 Hitler Youth

12 League of German Girls

Beginning in 1936, all ten- to 18-year-olds had to become members.

The Reich Chamber of Culture, under the aegis of 8 Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels, supervised cultural life.

8 Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels

Joseph Goebbels

Goebbels inspects members of the German home guard

German propagandist
in full Paul Joseph Goebbels

born Oct. 29, 1897, Rheydt, Ger.
died May 1, 1945, Berlin

minister of propaganda for the German Third Reich under Adolf Hitler. A master orator and propagandist, he is generally accounted responsible for presenting a favourable image of the Nazi regime to the German people. Following Hitler’s suicide, Goebbels served as chancellor of Germany for a single day before he and his wife, Magda Goebbels, poisoned their six children and took their own lives.

Goebbels was the third of five children of Friedrich Goebbels, a pious Roman Catholic factory clerk, and Katharina Maria Odenhausen. His parents provided him with a high school education and also helped support him during the five years of his undergraduate studies. He was exempted from military service during World War I because of his clubfoot (presumably a result of having contracted polio as a child), which later enabled his enemies to draw a parallel with the cloven hoof and limp of the Devil. This defect played a disastrous role in his life by engendering in Goebbels a strong desire to be compensated for his misfortune.

After graduating from Heidelberg University in 1922 with a doctorate in German philology, Goebbels pursued literary, dramatic, and journalistic efforts, writing an Expressionist novel in diary form in the 1920s. Although not yet involved in politics, Goebbels, in common with most of his contemporaries, was imbued with a nationalistic fervour made more intense by the frustrating outcome of the war. During his university days, a friend also introduced him to socialist and communist ideas. Antibourgeois from his youth, Goebbels remained so despite his later upper-class affectations. On the other hand, initially he was not anti-Semitic. The high school teachers he valued most were Jews, and he was at one time engaged to a half-Jewish girl. As a young man his options remained wide open as he contemplated political involvement. Indeed, it was an accident that determined the party he was to join.

In the autumn of 1924 Goebbels made friends with a group of National Socialists. A gifted speaker, he became the district administrator of the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP; National Socialist German Workers’ Party) in Elberfeld and editor of a biweekly National Socialist magazine. In November 1926 Hitler appointed him district leader in Berlin. The NSDAP, or Nazi Party, had been founded and developed in Bavaria, and, up to that time, there had been practically no party organization in Berlin, the German capital. Goebbels owed his new appointment to the prudent choice he made in a conflict between Gregor Strasser, representing the “left-wing” anticapitalist faction of the NSDAP, and the “right-wing” party leader, Hitler. In this conflict, Goebbels displayed opportunism by taking Hitler’s side against his own inner convictions.

Goebbels proceeded to build Nazi strength in Berlin until Hitler’s accession to power in January 1933. In 1928 Hitler gave Goebbels—who founded Der Angriff (“The Assault”) in 1927 and served as its editor and later, from 1940 to 1945, served as editor of Das Reich—the additional post of propaganda director for the NSDAP for all of Germany. Goebbels began to create the Führer myth around the person of Hitler and to institute the ritual of party celebrations and demonstrations that played a decisive role in converting the masses to Nazism. In addition, he spread propaganda by continuing his rigorous schedule of speech making.

After the Nazis seized power, Goebbels took control of the national propaganda machinery. A National Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda was created for him, and he became president of the newly formed “Chamber of Culture.” In this capacity he controlled, besides propaganda as such, the press, radio, theatre, films, literature, music, and the fine arts. In May 1933 he was instrumental in the burning of “unGerman” books at the Opera House in Berlin. “The era of extreme Jewish intellectualism is at an end,” Goebbels triumphantly told the crowd. A month earlier, Hitler had commanded him to organize a boycott of Jewish businesses. To be sure, Goebbels’s control of foreign propaganda, the press, theatre, and literature was limited—exercised only in bitter jurisdictional struggles with other officials—and he displayed little interest in regulating music and art. He did not, however, succeed in extending his power into other areas, such as the high schools.

Many of his cultural policies were fairly liberal, but he had to capitulate to the demands of nationalist extremists. Even his propaganda messages were limited by the rationale that ceaseless agitation only dulls the receptive powers of the listener. As far as Goebbels was concerned, efficiency took precedence over dogmatism, expediency over principles.

Goebbels’s influence decreased in the years 1937 and 1938. During this time he also became involved in a love affair with a Czechoslovakian film star that nearly caused him to give up his career and family. (In 1931 he married Magda Ritschel, a woman from the upper middle class who eventually bore him six children.) His role underwent little change with the outbreak of World War II.

Goebbels’s mastery of propaganda was particularly apparent after Germany’s defeats in Stalingrad and Africa. Goebbels did not falsify the facts of the prevailing situation. On the contrary, the main thrust of his propaganda—which he carried on personally and without respite in the press and over the radio—was to continually raise hopes by citing historical parallels and making other comparisons, by conjuring up allegedly immutable laws of history, or even, as a last resort, by referring to some secret miracle weapons. His public appearances, in sharp contrast to those of many other prominent Nazis who had retreated to bunkers and fortifications, did much to improve an image that had until then been overwhelmingly negative. Goebbels’s work was especially effective in intensifying the efforts of the home front: he became the protagonist of total war. After several false starts, the attempted assassination of Hitler on July 20, 1944 (see July Plot), brought him within view of his goal. On August 25 he became “Reich Plenipotentiary for Total War”—but it was, as he shortly lamented, too late.

On April 30, 1945, Goebbels was named chancellor of the Reich in Hitler’s will. The following day, Goebbels, the only one of the original Nazi leaders to remain with Hitler in the besieged bunker in Berlin, poisoned his six children, and he and his wife took their own lives.

Helmut Heiber

Encyclopaedia Britannica


Literature that did not conform to the party line was destroyed in public book burnings. National Socialism's quest for totality was amplified by a network of state surveillance agencies.

After the elimination of the SA, 9 Heinrich Himmler's elite Schutzstaffel ("defense squadrons")—known as the SS—became the most important instrument for fighting political opponents in 1934.

Heinrich Himmler; Himmler visiting the Dachau Concentration Camp in 1936

All police and secret service departments were placed under its control. The SS took over the administration of the concentration camps. In 1939, about 25,000 "undesirable" persons were serving sentences in five of these camps.



Public Book Burning in 1933

"Where books are burned, human beings are destined to be burned too."
Heinrich Heine

The Nazi student association initiated the public book burnings that took place in the German university cities on May 10, 1933.

Following a diatribe from Goebbels against "un-German" literature in Berlin, the works of

 Hundreds of writers emigrated, among them




Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels
gave a speech to the students

"...The era of extreme Jewish intellectualism is now at an end. The breakthrough of the German revolution has again cleared the way on the German path...The future German man will not just be a man of books, but a man of character. It is to this end that we want to educate you. As a young person, to already have the courage to face the pitiless glare, to overcome the fear of death, and to regain respect for death - this is the task of this young generation. And thus you do well in this midnight hour to commit to the flames the evil spirit of the past. This is a strong, great and symbolic deed - a deed which should document the following for the world to know - Here the intellectual foundation of the November (Democratic) Republic is sinking to the ground, but from this wreckage the phoenix of a new spirit will triumphantly rise..."



Book burnings in Berlin, May 10, 1933




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