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House of Habsburg

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The House of Habsburg (usually spelled Hapsburg in English) was an important royal house of Europe and is best known as supplying all of the formally elected Holy Roman Emperors between 1452 and 1740, as well as rulers of Spain and the Austrian Empire. Originally from Switzerland, the dynasty first reigned in Austria, which they ruled for over six centuries, but a series of dynastic marriages brought Burgundy, Spain, Bohemia, Hungary and other territories into the inheritance. In the sixteenth century the senior Spanish and junior Austrian branches of the family separated.
As royal houses are by convention determined via the male line, the Spanish branch ended upon the death of Charles II in 1700 and was replaced by the Anjou branch of the House of Bourbon in the person of his great-nephew Philip V. The Austrian branch technically ended in 1780 with the death of Maria Theresa of Austria and was replaced by the Veaudemont branch of the House of Lorraine in the person of her son Joseph II . However, in practice, the new successor house styled itself as Habsburg-Lorraine (Habsburg-Lothringen in German).

Principal roles

Their principal roles were as:

German Kings (1273-1291, 1298-1308, 1314-1330, 1438-1740, 1745-1806), mostly also as
Holy Roman Emperors
Rulers of Austria (as Dukes 12821453, Archdukes)
Kings of Bohemia (13061307, 14371439, 14531457, 15261918),
Kings of Hungary (14371439, 14451457, 15261918),
Kings of Spain (15161700),
Kings of Portugal (15801640),
Kings of Galicia and Lodomeria (17721918), and
Grand Princes of Transylvania (16901867).

Other crowns held briefly by the House included:

King-consort of England (15541558)
Queens consort of Portugal and the Algarve (1518-1521, 1525-1557, 1708-1750)
Emperor of Mexico (1864-1867)

Numerous other titles were attached to the crowns listed above.


From Counts of Habsburg to Holy Roman Emperors

The dynasty is named after their seat of origin, the Habsburg Castle founded by Radbot, Count of Habsburg in the Swiss Canton of Aargau. The origins of the name of the castle are uncertain. Most people assume the name to be derived from the High German Habichtsburg (Hawk Castle), but some historians and linguists are convinced that the name comes from the Middle High German word 'hab/ hap' meaning fjord, as there is a river with a ford nearby. The first documented use of the name by the dynasty itself has been traced to the year 1108.[1][2][3] The Habsburg Castle was the family seat in the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries in the former duchy of Swabia, which incorporated present-day Aargau, at the time of the Holy Roman Empire. From southwestern Germany (mainly Alsace, Breisgau, Aargau and Thurgau) the family extended its influence and holdings to the southeastern reaches of the Holy Roman Empire, roughly today's Austria (12781382). Within only two or three generations, the Habsburgs had managed to secure an initially intermittent grasp on the imperial throne that would last for centuries (12731291, 12981308, 14381740, and 17451806).

Maximilian I
On the evening of August 16, 1477, by marrying Mary, Duchess of Burgundy, Archduke Maximilian I acquired control of the Low Countries, effectively establishing the Habsburg Dynasty by extending their territories outside Austria. Maximilian's son, Philip the Handsome (also known as Phillip the Fair) married Joanna of Castile, also known as Joan the Mad, heiress of Castile, Aragon and most of Spain. Phillip and Joan had six children, the eldest of whom became Charles V and inherited the kingdoms of Castile and Aragon, Southern Italy, Austria and the Low Countries.

Division of the House: Austrian and Spanish Habsburgs

After the April 21, 1521 assignment of the Austrian lands to Ferdinand I by his brother Emperor Charles V (also King Charles I of Spain) (15161556), the dynasty split into the minor branch of the Austrian Habsburgs and the major branch of the Spanish Habsburgs. The Austrian Habsburgs held the title of Holy Roman Emperor after Charles' death in 1558, as well as the Habsburg Hereditary Lands and the Kingdoms of Bohemia and Hungary, while the Spanish major branch ruled over the Spanish kingdoms, the Netherlands, the Habsburgs' Italian possessions, and, for a time, Portugal. Hungary was partly under Habsburg rule from 1526. For 150 years most of the country was occupied by the Ottoman Turks but these territories were re-conquered in 16831699.
The Spanish Habsburgs died out in 1700 (prompting the War of the Spanish Succession), as did the last male of the Austrian Habsburg line in 1740 (prompting the War of the Austrian Succession), and consequently the entire line itself in 1780. The heiress of the last Austrian Habsburg (Maria Theresa) had married Francis Stephan, Duke of Lorraine, (both of them were great-grandchildren of Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand III, but from different empresses) and their descendants carried on the Habsburg tradition from Vienna under the dynastic name Habsburg-Lorraine, although technically a new ruling house came into existence in the Austrian territories, the House of Lorraine (see Dukes of Lorraine family tree). It is thought that extensive intra-family marriages within both lines contributed to their extinctions.

Extinction of a Royal Dynasty

The Habsburgs sought to consolidate their power by the frequent use of consanguineous marriages with disastrous results. A study of 3,000 family members over 16 generations by the University of Santiago de Compostela suggests that inbreeding directly led to their extinctions. The gene pool eventually became so small that the last of the Spanish line Charles II, who was severely disabled by genetic disorders, possessed a genome comparable with that of a child born to a brother and sister as did his father, likely due to "Remote Inbreeding".[5]

House of Habsburg-Lorraine

On August 6, 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved under the French Emperor Napoleon I's reorganization of Germany. However, in anticipation of the loss of his title of Holy Roman Emperor, Francis II declared himself hereditary Emperor of Austria (as Francis I) on August 11, 1804, three months after Napoleon had declared himself Emperor of the French on May 18, 1804.
Emperor Francis I of Austria used the official full list of titles: "We, Francis the First, by the grace of God Emperor of Austria; King of Jerusalem, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Galicia and Lodomeria; Archduke of Austria; Duke of Lorraine, Salzburg, Würzburg, Franconia, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola; Grand Duke of Cracow; Grand Prince of Transylvania; Margrave of Moravia; Duke of Sandomir, Masovia, Lublin, Upper and Lower Silesia, Auschwitz and Zator, Teschen, and Friule; Prince of Berchtesgaden and Mergentheim; Princely Count of Habsburg, Gorizia, and Gradisca and of the Tirol; and Margrave of Upper and Lower Lusatia and Istria".
Under the terms of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 effective autonomy was given to Hungary (see Austria-Hungary). Under this arrangement, the Hungarians referred to their ruler as king and never emperor. This prevailed until the Habsburgs' deposition from both Austria and Hungary in 1918 following defeat in World War I.
On November 11, 1918, with his empire collapsing around him, the last Habsburg ruler, Charles I (who also reigned as Charles IV of Hungary) issued a proclamation recognizing Austria's right to determine the future of the state and renouncing any role in state affairs. Two days later, he issued a separate proclamation for Hungary. Even though he did not officially abdicate, this is considered the end of the Habsburg dynasty. In 1919, the new republican Austrian government subsequently passed a law banishing the Habsburgs from Austrian territory until they renounced all intentions of regaining the throne and accepted the status of private citizens. Charles made several attempts to regain the throne of Hungary, and in 1921 the Hungarian government passed a law which revoked Charles' rights and dethroned the Habsburgs.
The Habsburgs did not formally abandon all hope of returning to power until Otto von Habsburg, Emperor Charles' eldest son, renounced all claims to the throne.
The dynasty's motto is "Let others wage wars, but you, happy Austria, shall marry", which indicates the talent of the Habsburgs to have their members intermarry into other royal houses, to make alliances and inherit territory. Empress Maria Theresa is recognized quite notably for it and is sometimes referred to as the 'Great-Grandmother of Europe'.

Counts of Habsburg

Radbot of Klettgau, built the Habsburg castle (ca. 9851035). Besides Werner I, he had two other sons: Otto I, who would become Count of Sundgau in the Alsace, and Albrecht I.
Werner I, Count of Habsburg (1025 / 10301096). Besides Otto II, there was another son, Albert II, who was reeve of Muri from 11111141 after the
death of Otto II.
Otto II of Habsburg; first to name himself as "of Habsburg" (d. 1111) Father of:
Werner II of Habsburg (around 1135; d. 1167) Father of:
Albrecht III of Habsburg (the Rich), d. 1199. Under him, the Habsburg territories expanded to cover most of what is today the German-speaking part of Switzerland. Father of:
Rudolph II of Habsburg (d. 1232) Father of:
Albrecht IV of Habsburg, (d. 1239 / 1240); father of Rudolph IV of Habsburg, who would later become king Rudolph I of Germany. Between Albrecht IV and his brother Rudolph III, the Habsburg properties were split, with Albrecht keeping the Aargau and the western parts, the eastern parts going to Rudolph III. Albrecht IV was also an ancestor of Sophia Chotek wife of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria

German kings
Rudolph I was elected king of Germany in 1273 and reigned until 1291.

Dukes of Austria
In the late Middle Ages, when the Habsburgs expanded their territories in the east, they often ruled as dukes of the Duchy of Austria which covered only what is today Lower Austria and the eastern part of Upper Austria. The Habsburg possessions also included Styria, and then expanded west to include Carinthia and Carniola in 1335 and Tirol in 1363. Their original scattered possessions in the southern Alsace, south-western Germany and Vorarlberg were collectively known as Further Austria. The Habsburg dukes gradually lost their homelands south of the Rhine and Lake Constance to the expanding Old Swiss Confederacy. Unless mentioned explicitly, the dukes of Austria also ruled over Further Austria until 1379, after that year, Further Austria was ruled by the Princely Count of Tyrol. Names in italics designate dukes who never actually ruled.
Rudolph II, son of Rudolph I, duke of Austria and Styria together with his brother 12821283, was dispossessed by his brother, who eventually would be murdered by one of Rudolph's sons.
Albert I (Albrecht I), son of Rudolph I and brother of the above, duke from 12821308; was Holy Roman Emperor from 12981308. See also below.
Rudolph III, oldest son of Lenihan I[citation needed], designated duke of Austria and Styria 12981307
Frederick the Handsome (Friedrich der Schöne), brother of Rudolph III. Duke of Austria and Styria (with his brother Leopold I) from 13081330; officially co-regent of emperor Louis IV since 1325, but never ruled.
Leopold I, brother of the above, duke of Austria and Styria from 13081326.
Albert II (Albrecht II), brother of the above, duke of Vorderösterreich from 13261358, duke of Austria and Styria 13301358, duke of Carinthia after 1335.
Otto the Jolly (der Fröhliche), brother of the above, duke of Austria and Styria 13301339 (together with his brother), duke of Carinthia after 1335.
Rudolph IV the Founder (der Stifter), oldest son of Albert II. Duke of Austria and Styria 13581365, Duke of Tirol after 1363.
After the death of Rudolph IV, his brothers Albert III and Leopold III ruled the Habsburg possessions together from 1365 until 1379, when they split the territories in the Treaty of Neuberg, Albert keeping the Duchy of Austria and Leopold ruling over Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, the Windish March, Tirol, and Further Austria.

Albertine line: Dukes of Austria
Albert III (Albrecht III), duke of Austria until 1395, from 1386 (after the death of Leopold) until 1395 also ruled over the latter's possessions.
Albert IV (Albrecht IV), duke of Austria 13951404, in conflict with Leopold IV.
Albert V (Albrecht V), duke of Austria 14041439, Holy Roman Emperor from 14381439 as Albert II. See also below.
Ladislaus Posthumus, son of the above, duke of Austria 14401457.

Leopoldine line: Dukes of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol
Leopold III, duke of Styria, Carinthia, Tyrol, and Further Austria until 1386, when he was killed in the Battle of Sempach.
William (Wilhelm), son of the above, 13861406 duke in Inner Austria (Carinthia, Styria)
Leopold IV, son of Leopold III, 1391 regent of Further Austria, 13951402 duke of Tyrol, after 1404 also duke of Austria, 14061411 duke of Inner Austria
Ernest Augustus, Elector of Hanover, duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg {1629-1629} father of King George I of Great Britain who was the ancestor of the House of Windsor; Ernest Augustus was the ancestor of King Christian VII of Denmark and Norway, and Duke of Schleswig and Holstein ; King George I of Greece and German Emperor Wilhelm II of the House of Hohenzollern. Ernest Augustus sister was the great-grandmother of Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp ancestor of the House of Romanov Czar Nicholas II whose wife Alexandra Feodorovna (Alix of Hesse) was a descendant of King George I of Great Britain.

Leopoldine-Inner Austrian sub-line
Ernest the Iron (der Eiserne), 14061424 duke of Inner Austria, until 1411 together and competing with his brother Leopold IV.
Frederick V (Friedrich), son of Ernst, became emperor Frederick III in 1440. He was duke of Inner Austria from 1424 on. Guardian of Sigismund 14391446 and of Ladislaus Posthumus 14401452.
Albert VI (Albrecht VI), brother of the above, 14461463 regent of Further Austria, duke of Austria 14581463
Ernestine line of Saxon princes, ancestor of George I of Great Britain-descended from sister of Frederick III

Leopoldine-Tyrol sub-line
Frederick IV (Friedrich), brother of Ernst, 14021439 duke of Tyrol and Further Austria
Sigismund, also spelled Siegmund or Sigmund, 14391446 under the tutelage of the Frederick V above, then duke of Tyrol, and after the death of Albrecht VI in 1463 also duke of Further Austria.
Reuniting of Habsburg possessions
Sigismund had no children and adopted Maximilian I, son of duke Frederick V (emperor Frederick III). Under Maximilian, the possessions of the Habsburgs would be united again under one ruler, after he had re-conquered the Duchy of Austria after the death of Matthias Corvinus, who resided in Vienna and styled himself duke of Austria from 14851490.

German Kings and Holy Roman Emperors previous to the reunion of the Habsburg possessions
Rudolph I, emperor 12731291 (never crowned)
Albert I, emperor 12981308 (never crowned)
Albert II, emperor 14381439 (never crowned)-ancestor of Empress Catherine II of Russia great-great-great-grandmother of Nicholas II of Russia {see above Leopoldine Line}
Frederick III, emperor 14401493
Kings of Hungary previous to the reunion of the Habsburg possessions
Albert, king of Hungary 14371439
Ladislaus V Posthumus, king of Hungary 14441457

Holy Roman Emperors, Archdukes of Austria
Maximilian I, emperor 15081519
Charles V, emperor 15191556

Spanish Habsburgs: Kings of Spain, Kings of Portugal (15801640)
Philip I of Castile, second son of Maximilian I, founded the Spanish Habsburgs in 1496 by marrying Joanna the Mad, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella. Philip died in 1506, leaving the thrones of Castile and Aragon to be inherited and united into the throne of Spain by his son:
Charles I 15161556, aka Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor; divided the House into Austrian and Spanish lines
Philip II of Spain 15561598, also Philip I of Portugal 15801598 and Philip I of England and his wife Mary I of England 15541558
Philip III, also Philip II of Portugal 15981621
Philip IV 16211665, also Philip III of Portugal 16211640
Charles II 16651700
The War of the Spanish Succession took place after the extinction of the Spanish Habsburg line, to determine the inheritance of Charles II.

Austrian Habsburgs: Holy Roman Emperors, Archdukes of Austria
Ferdinand I, emperor 15561564 (→Family Tree)
Maximilian II, emperor 15641576 {ancestor of Don Francisco Vazquez de Molinar great-grandfather of Mexican general Pascual Orozco and related to Ted Williams}
Rudolf II, emperor 15761612
Matthias, emperor 16121619
Ferdinand II, emperor 16191637
Ferdinand III, emperor 16371657 (→Family Tree)
Leopold I, emperor 16581705
Josef I, emperor 17051711
Charles VI, emperor 17111740
Maria Theresa of Austria, Habsburg heiress and wife of emperor Francis I Stephen, reigned as Archduchess of Austria and Queen of Hungary and Bohemia 17401780.
The War of the Austrian Succession took place after the extinction of the male line of the Austrian Habsburg line upon the death of Charles VI. The direct Habsburg line itself became totally extinct with the death of Maria Theresa of Austria, when it was followed by the House of Lorraine, styled of Habsburg-Lorraine.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Holy Roman Emperors, Archdukes of Austria
Francis I Stephen, emperor 17451765 (→Family Tree)
Joseph II, emperor 17651790
Leopold II, emperor 17901792 (→Family Tree)
Francis II, emperor 17921806 (→Family Tree)

Queen Maria Christina of Austria of Spain, great-granddaughter of Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor above. Wife of Alfonso XII of Spain and mother of Alfonso XIII of the House of Bourbon. Alfonso XIII's wife Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg was descended from King George I of Great Britain from the Habsburg Leopold Line {above}.
The House of Habsburg-Lorraine retained Austria and attached possessions after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire; see below.
A son of Leopold II was Archduke Rainer of Austria whose wife was from the House of Savoy; a daughter Adelaide, Queen of Sardina was the wife of King Victor Emmanuel II of Piedmont, Savoy, and Sardinia and King of Italy. Their Children married into the Royal Houses of Bonaparte; House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha {Braganza {Portugal}; House of Savoy {Spain}; and the Dukedoms of Montferrat and Chablis.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Grand dukes of Tuscany
Francis Stephen 1737-1765 (later Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor)
Francis Stephen assigned the grand duchy of Tuscany to his second son Peter Leopold, who in turn assigned it to his second son upon his accession as Holy Roman Emperor. Tuscany remained the domain of this cadet branch of the family until Italian unification.
Peter Leopold 1765-1790 (later Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor)
Ferdinand III 1790-1800, 1814-1824 (→Family Tree)
Leopold II 1824-1849, 1849-1859
Ferdinand IV 1859-1860

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Tuscany line, post monarchy
Ferdinand IV 1860-1908
Archduke Joseph Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany 1908-1942
Archduke Peter Ferdinand, Prince of Tuscany 1942-1948
Archduke Gottfried, Prince of Tuscany 1948-1984
Archduke Leopold Franz, Prince of Tuscany 1948-1993
Archduke Sigismund, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1993-Present

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Dukes of Modena
The duchy of Modena was assigned to a minor branch of the family by the Congress of Vienna. It was lost to Italian unification.
Francis IV 1814-1831, 1831-1846 (→Family Tree)
Francis V 1846-1848, 1849-1859

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Modena line, post monarchy
Francis V (1859-1875)
Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Este (1875-1914)
Karl, Archduke of Austria-Este (1914-1917)
Robert, Archduke of Austria-Este (1917-1996)
Lorenz, Archduke of Austria-Este (1996-Present)

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Empress consort of France
Marie Louise of Austria 1810-1814

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Duchess of Parma
The duchy of Parma was likewise assigned to a Habsburg, but did not stay in the House long before succumbing to Italian unification. It was granted to the second wife of Napoleon I of France, Maria Luisa Duchess of Parma, a daughter of the Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who was the mother of Napoleon II of France. Napoleon had divorced his wife Rose de Tascher de la Pagerie (better known to history as Josephine de Beauharnais) in her favour.
Maria Luisa 1814-1847 (→Family Tree)

House of Habsburg-Lorraine: Emperor of Mexico
Maximilian, an adventurous younger son, was invited as part of Napoleon III's manipulations to take the throne of Mexico, becoming Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico. The conservative Mexican nobility, as well as the clergy, supported this Second Mexican Empire. His consort, Charlotte of Belgium, a princess of the House of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, encouraged her husband's acceptance of the Mexican crown and accompanied him as Empress Carlota of Mexico. The adventure did not end well. Maximilian was shot in "Cerro de las Campanas" in 1867 by the republican forces of Benito Juárez.
Maximilian I 1864-1867) (→Family Tree)
House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Emperors of Austria
Francis I, Emperor of Austria 18041835: formerly Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor (→Family Tree)
Ferdinand I, Emperor of Austria 18351848
Francis Joseph, Emperor of Austria 18481916.
Charles I, Emperor of Austria 19161918. He died in exile in 1922. His wife was of the House of Bourbon-Parma.

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Heads of the House of Habsburg (post-monarchy)
Charles I was expelled from his domains after World War I and the empire was abolished.
Charles I (1918-1922) (→Family Tree)
Otto von Habsburg (1912-present)
Zita of Bourbon-Parma, guardian, (1922-1930)
Karl Habsburg-Lothringen, successor in due course to Otto


Kings of Hungary
The kingship of Hungary remained in the Habsburg family for centuries; but as the kingship was not strictly inherited (Hungary was an elective monarchy until 1687) and was sometimes used as a training ground for young Habsburgs, the dates of rule do not always match those of the primary Habsburg possessions. Therefore, the kings of Hungary are listed separately.

Albertine line: Kings of Hungary
Albert, king of Hungary 14371439
Ladislaus V Posthumus, King of Hungary 14441457

Austrian Habsburgs: Kings of Hungary
Ferdinand I, king of Hungary 15261564
Maximilian I, king of Hungary 15631576
Rudolf I, king of Hungary 15721608
Matthias II, king of Hungary 16081619
Ferdinand II, king of Hungary 16181637
Ferdinand III, king of Hungary 16251657
Ferdinand IV, king of Hungary 16471654
Leopold I, king of Hungary 16551705
Joseph I, king of Hungary 16871711
Charles III, king of Hungary 17111740
House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Kings of Hungary
Maria Theresa, queen of Hungary 17411780
Joseph II, king of Hungary 17801790
Leopold II, king of Hungary 17901792
Francis, king of Hungary 17921835
Ferdinand V, king of Hungary 18351848
Francis Joseph I, king of Hungary 18671916
Charles IV, king of Hungary 19161918

Kings of Bohemia
The kingship of Bohemia was from 1306 a position elected by its nobles. As a result, it was not an automatically inherited position. Until rule of the Ferdinand I Habsburgs didn't gain hereditary accession to the throne and were shifted by other dynasties. Hence, the kings of Bohemia and their ruling dates are listed separately.
Rudolph I, king of Bohemia 1306-1307

Albertine line: Kings of Bohemia
Albert, king of Bohemia 14371439
Ladislaus Posthumus, king of Bohemia 14531457

Austrian Habsburgs: Kings of Bohemia
Ferdinand I, king of Bohemia 15261564
Maximilian I, king of Bohemia 15631576
Rudolph II, king of Bohemia 15721611
Matthias, king of Bohemia 16111618
Ferdinand II, king of Bohemia 16211637
Ferdinand III, king of Bohemia 16251657
Ferdinand IV, king of Bohemia 16471654
Leopold I, king of Bohemia 16551705
Joseph I, king of Bohemia 16871711
Charles II, king of Bohemia 17111740

House of Habsburg-Lorraine, main line: Kings of Bohemia
From the accession of Maria Theresa, the kingship of Bohemia became united with the Austrian possessions.
Maria Theresa, queen of Bohemia 17431780
Joseph II, king of Bohemia 17801790
Leopold II, king of Bohemia 17901792
Francis, king of Bohemia 17921835
Ferdinand V, king of Bohemia 18351848
Francis Joseph I, king of Bohemia 18481916
Charles III, king of Bohemia 19161918

Queens Consort of France
From the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries, the greatest non-Habsburg power in Europe was usually France. As a result, in usually futile attempts to either unite Europe under the Habsburg family or to prevent French enmity, Habsburg daughters were wed to successive kings of France.

Pre-division Habsburgs
Eleanor of Habsburg, Infanta of Spain (1498-1558), wife of King Francis I of France.

Austrian Habsburgs
Elisabeth of Austria (1554-1592), wife of King Charles IX of France

Spanish Habsburgs
Anne of Austria, infanta of Spain, (16011666), wife of King Louis XIII
Maria Theresa of Spain (16381683), wife of King Louis XIV

Marie Antoinette (17551793), wife of King Louis XVI
Marie Louise (1791 -1847), second wife of Emperor Napoleon I.

Queens Consort of Portugal
Due to its proximaty (geographic, strategic and religious) the Habsburgs always consolidated their alliances with the Portuguese Royal House of Aviz, which gave them this Kingdom in 1580. When the Braganzas expelled the Spanish Habsburgs (1640), new alliances were set-up, this time with the Austrian Habsburgs.

Pre-division Habsburgs
Eleanor of Habsburg, Infanta of Spain (1498-1558), third wife of King Manuel I of Portugal. When she became a widow, she remaried, this time with king Francis I of France.
Catherine of Habsburg, Infanta of Spain (1507-1578), wife of King John III of Portugal

Austrian Habsburgs
Marie Anne, Archduchess of Austria (16831754), wife of King John V of Portugal

Marie Leopoldina, Archduchess of Austria (1797-1826), first wife of Peter I, Emperor of Brazil, also known as Peter IV, King of Portugal. Marie Leopoldina was Marie Louise younger sister.

Habsburg-Lorraine today (non main line)
The House is still very prominent in Europe, with many members living in the Americas and even as far afield as Southern Africa. This can, however, not be substantiated. The Habsburg art of marriage lead to countless morganatic marriages creating many demi lines of the House, such as those of Habsburg-Snyder, Habsburg-Rogers, Habsburg-vandeVen and Habsburg-Lorena. Little is known of these families today as they have since their morganatic origins lost touch with the main line.

Tuscan Duchy and Salzburg descendants-
The members of this family bear the titles Archduke (Archduchess) of Austria, Prince (Princess) of Hungary, Prince (Princess) of Tuscany (Imperial and Royal Highness). Descendants of morganatic marriages, except those granted specific titles such as the Princes von Altenburg, generally bear the title "Graf (Gräfin) von Habsburg-[Lothringen].



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