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The Middle Ages

5th - 15th century


The upheaval that accompanied the migration of European peoples of late antiquity shattered the power of the Roman Empire and consequently the entire political order of Europe. Although Germanic kingdoms replaced Rome, the culture of late antiquity, especially Christianity, continued to have an effect and defined the early Middle Ages. Concurrent to the developments in the Christian West, in Arabia the Prophet Muhammad in the seventh century founded Islam, a new religion with immense political and military effectiveness. Within a very short time, great Islamic empires developed from the Iberian Peninsula and the Maghreb to India and Central Asia, with centers such as Cordoba, Cairo, Baghdad, and Samarkand.

The Cathedral Notre Dame de Reims, built in the 13th—14th century in the Gothic style;
the cathedral served for many centuries as the location for the ceremonial coronation of the French king.

The Cathedral of Reims, by Domenico Quaglio




The Middle Ages

5th - 15th century

see also:





CLASSICAL MUSIC-The Middle Ages and the Renaissance



1 Tournament, book illustration, 15th century
2 Eltz castle on the Moselle, built 13th century
3 A Lord and his vassal, book illustration. 1 5th century

It was the humanists at the end of the 15th and beginning of the 16th centuries who gave the Middle Ages its name. They saw the Middle Ages merely as a "dark" time between the much-admired antiquity and their own modern times. However, our picture of this period is not shaped solely by this negative evaluation depicting intellectual decay, primitive customs, and lack of personal freedom.

There also exist the images of the splendor of life at the royal courts, noble 1 knights who would throw themselves into adventures for the honor of the king or the love of a ladv, of huge 2 stone castles, and of traveling troubadours and 5 minstrels.

We experience this world through the tales of the High Middle Ages—those of Chretien de Troves, Wolfram von Eschenbach, or Gottfried von Strassburg. These, however, as is known today, were idealized constructions of reality rather than its depiction. The literary reports that were passed down nurtured the ardor for the Middle Ages and its transfiguration by the German Romantics of the 19th century, whose sense of identity as a nation was fostered by the  image ol this supposedly glittering past.

Social Order

Society in the Middle Ages was a distinct class structure at whose head stood the nobility and the clergy. Underneath these, the third "estate" comprised the majority of the population, from the poorest beggars to the richest merchants. The discrete hierarchy was justified by the view that each estate had—like the limbs of a body—specific tasks to carry out for one another and the good of the whole. The association into social communities, as represented by the estates, was carried over into other areas of life, where the artisans formed guilds and believers organized into religious fraternities. In this, one sees not only the need for a sense of social security and belonging, but also the desire to find a place in the divine order.

Because agriculture was the most significant economic factor in the Middle Ages, the social order was strongly tied to the possession of land: Those who had land at their disposal had power and influence. Feudalism (from the Latin feudum, fief), which developed in France in the early Middle Ages, characterized this era in Europe. A tiet was lent to a vassal by his lord. Alter the vassal's death, the land was returned to the lord, although later it often became hereditary in the family of the vassal. If the vassal succeeded in making the tiet hereditary in his family, he achieved a degree of independence, and his dependents had the chance to establish their own power base over time.

With investiture, however, a social relationship was also established: The vassal owed the 3 lord loyalty and service, particularly in the case of war, while the lord on the other hand was obligated to provide loyalty and protection.

The king stood at the top of this tiekiom pvramid which encompassed all people from regional princes and high clergy to merchants and down to 4 the peasants.

5 Peasants work in the fields around
Paris which can be seen in the background,
book illustration, ca. 16th ń

4 A minstrel is given a wreath in return
for his services, book illustration,
beginning 14th century


Living Conditions

In the Middle Ages, the working and living conditions, particularly of the simple population but also of the lower clergy and nobility, were relatively primitive—in comparison, for example, with those in the concurrently blossoming Islamic culture. Bad nutrition, miserable medical care, and wars and feuds provided insecure living conditions and a very low life expectancy. Mankind was powerless against epidemics such as the plague, or "Black Death," which in the middle of the 14th century took the lives of around 25 million people—a third of the total population—in Europe alone. It appears that movement by the Mongols and merchant caravans brought the plague from Central Asia, where it had presumably already killed as many people, to the Middle East and Europe.

Such epidemics made a huge impact on public consciousness, leading to a mood of impending doom and 6 religious fanaticism, as well as a greed for 7 life and pleasure.

6 Procession of flagellants, book illustration, 14th ń
7 Medieval bathing house, book illustration, ca. 1450
8 Lecture in theology at the Sorbonne, 15th century

Culture and Spiritual Life

The Church—and particularly its 10 monasteries and convents, out of which internal church reforms were initiated—were the carriers and shapers of culture in the Middle Ages. Here, the knowledge of antiquity was preserved through the copying of texts, but also debate over them, and the creation of new religious and philosophical tracts, as well as spiritual compositions for the Mass. The churches and monasteries were responsible not only for the preservation but also for the mediation of education and culture. Monastery and cathedral schools taught the septem arties liberales (seven liberal arts): grammar, rhetoric, dialectics, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music.

From these schools developed the first 8 universities in the 12th century, initially as fraternities (universitas) of teachers and students.

In addition to theology, law and medicine were the most important faculties. It was also theologians who, through the philosophical discipline of scholasticism, set themselves the difficult task of unifying belief and knowledge, of combining theological dogma with scientific discoveries. As a reaction to the rational scholasticism, mystics such as Hildegard of Bingen and Meiseter Eckart sought an individualized internal experience of the divine. Lay movements such as the Beguincs attempted, in nonmonastic fraternities, to combine a new form of piety (devotio moderna) with everyday life. The institutionalized Inquisition (from the Latin for "examination") was one of the innovations of the Church that strongly shaped the negative picture of the "dark Middle Ages." However, it was not only an instrument of repression, although its methods are infamous today; legally it constituted progress, in that it replaced the practice of "God's judgment," as the deciding factor in a trial, with examinations that had to follow certain rules.
This opened the wav for a modern criminal process trial.

Transition to the Modern Era

The transition to the Modern Era took place in many fields, including philosophy, society, and the economy.

With the emergence of the new international financial syslem and early capitalism after the 13th century, the possession of land became less important and the position of 9 cities, where capital could be made through other means, primarily through international trade, became more powerful.

The 11 "middle class" of society gained political influence in relation to the nobility and clergy, as they adapted quicker to these new paths to capital and wealth.

Especially in Flanders and Italy, with their many rich trading cities, the perception of mankind and the environment changed to a more worldly view that saw the here and now as increasingly important, which developed in the late Middle Ages in the wake of humanism and the emerging Renaissance. This was influenced by the rediscovery of texts from antiquity. Ultimately the demand of Catholic dogma for absolute interpretative authority broke up and made wav for the scholarship of the Modern Era.

9 Palazzo Comunale in Montepulciano,
Tuscany, end of 14th ń

10 Parents bring their child to a
convent school to be educated,
book illustration, beginning 14th century


11 Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife, painting by Jan van Eyck, 1434




Encyclopaedia Britannica

Social system

also called feudal system or feudality , French féodalité
historiographic construct designating the social, economic, and political conditions in western Europe during the early Middle Ages, the long stretch of time between the 5th and 12th centuries. Feudalism and the related term feudal system are labels invented long after the period to which they were applied. They refer to what those who invented them perceived as the most significant and distinctive characteristics of the early and central Middle Ages. The expressions féodalité and feudal system were coined by the beginning of the 17th century, and the English words feudality and feudalism (as well as feudal pyramid) were in use by the end of the 18th century. They were derived from the Latin words feudum (“fief”) and feodalitas (services connected with the fief), both of which were used during the Middle Ages and later to refer to a form of property holding. Use of the terms associated with feudum to denote the essential characteristics of the early Middle Ages has invested the fief with exaggerated prominence and placed undue emphasis on the importance of a special mode of land tenure to the detriment of other, more significant aspects of social, economic, and political life.


Origins of the idea
The terms feudalism and feudal system were generally applied to the early and central Middle Ages—the period from the 5th century, when central political authority in the Western empire disappeared, to the 12th century, when kingdoms began to emerge as effective centralized units of government. For a relatively brief period, from the mid-8th to the early 9th century, the Carolingian rulers, especially Pippin (reigned 751–768) and Charlemagne (reigned 768/771–814), had remarkable success in creating and maintaining a relatively unified empire. Before and afterward, however, political units were fragmented and political authority diffused. The mightier of the later Carolingians attempted to regulate local magnates and enlist them in their service, but the power of local elites was never effaced. In the absence of forceful kings and emperors, local lords expanded the territory subject to them and intensified their control over the people living there. In many areas the term feudum, as well as the terms beneficium and casamentum, came to be used to describe a form of property holding. The holdings these terms denoted have often been considered essentially dependent tenures, over which their holders’ rights were notably limited. As the words were used in documents of the period, however, the characteristics of the holdings to which they were applied are difficult to distinguish from those of tenures designated by such words as allodium, which has generally been translated as “freehold property.”

Fiefs still existed in the 17th century, when the feudal model—or, as contemporary historians term it, the feudal construct—was developed. At that time, the fief was a piece of property, usually land, that was held in return for service, which could include military duties. The fief holder swore fidelity to the person from whom the fief was held (the lord, dominus, or seigneur) and became his (or her) man. The ceremony in which the oath was taken was called homage (from the Latin, homo; “man”). These institutions survived in England until they were abolished by Parliament in 1645 and, after the Restoration, by Charles II in 1660. Until their eradication by the National Assembly between 1789 and 1793, they had considerable importance in France, where they were employed to create and reinforce familial and social bonds. Their pervasiveness made students of the past eager to understand how they had come into being. Similarities of terminology and practice found in documents surviving from the Middle Ages—especially the Libri feudorum (“Book of Fiefs”), an Italian compilation of customs relating to property holding, which was made in the 12th century and incorporated into Roman law—led historians and lawyers to search for the origins of contemporary feudal institutions in the Middle Ages.

As defined by scholars in the 17th century, the medieval “feudal system” was characterized by the absence of public authority and the exercise by local lords of administrative and judicial functions formerly (and later) performed by centralized governments; general disorder and endemic conflict; and the prevalence of bonds between lords and free dependents (vassals), which were forged by the lords’ bestowal of property called “fiefs” and by their reception of homage from the vassals. These bonds entailed the rendering of services by vassals to their lords (military obligations, counsel, financial support) and the lords’ obligation to protect and respect their vassals. These characteristics were in part deduced from medieval documents and chronicles, but they were interpreted in light of 17th-century practices and semantics. Learned legal commentaries on the laws governing the property called “fiefs” also affected interpretation of the sources. These commentaries, produced since the 13th century, focused on legal theory and on rules derived from actual disputes and hypothetical cases. They did not include (nor were they intended to provide) dispassionate analysis of historical development. Legal commentators in the 16th century had prepared the way for the elaboration of the feudal construct by formulating the idea, loosely derived from the Libri feudorum, of a single feudal law, which they presented as being spread throughout Europe during the early Middle Ages.

The terms feudalism and feudal system enabled historians to deal summarily with a long span of European history whose complexities were—and remain—confusing. The Roman Empire and the various emperors’ accomplishments provided a key to understanding Roman history, and the reemergence of states and strong rulers in the 12th century again furnished manageable focal points for historical narrative, particularly since medieval states and governmental practices can be presented as antecedents of modern nations and institutions. The feudal construct neatly filled the gap between the 5th and the 12th century. Although Charlemagne may seem an anomaly in this evolution, he was presented as “sowing the seeds” from which feudalism emerged. A variety of Roman, barbarian, and Carolingian institutions were considered antecedents of feudal practices: Roman lordship and clientage, barbarian war chiefdoms and bands, grants of lands to soldiers and to officeholders, and oaths of loyalty and fidelity. In the 17th century, as later, the high point of feudalism was located in the 11th century. Later rulers who adopted and adapted feudal institutions to increase their power were labeled “feudal” and their governments called “feudal monarchies.” Despite the survival of institutions and practices associated with the medieval feudal system in the 17th century, historians of that time presented medieval feudalism and the feudal system as declining in importance in the 14th and 15th centuries. This period was later dubbed an age of “bastard feudalism” because of the use of salaries and written contracts between lords and dependents.

Those who formulated the concept of feudalism were affected by the search for simplicity and order in the universe associated with the work of Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) and especially Isaac Newton (1642–1727). Historians and philosophers were persuaded that if the universe operated systematically, so too must societies. In the 16th century some students of the law and customs of the fief declared that feudal institutions were universal and maintained that feudal systems had existed in Rome, Persia, and Judaea. The philosopher Giambattista Vico (1668–1744) considered the fief one of humankind’s eternal institutions. Adopting a similar position, Voltaire (1694–1778) contested the judgment of Montesquieu (1689–1755) that the appearance of feudal laws was a unique historical event. The philosophical historians of 18th-century Scotland searched for feudalism outside western Europe, and they expanded the construct’s field of significance to encompass peasants as well as lords. Adam Smith (1723–90) presented feudal government as a stage of social development characterized by the absence of commerce and by the use of semi-free labour to cultivate land. Smith’s student John Millar (1735–1801) found “the outlines of the feudal policy” in Asia and Africa. The association popularly made between the feudal construct and ignorance and barbarism fostered its extension to regions which Europeans scarcely knew and which they considered backward and primitive.

Following Millar’s precedent, some later historians continued to look for feudal institutions in times and places outside medieval Europe, most notably Japan. These efforts, predictably, resulted in misconceptions and misunderstanding. Historians using the feudal model for comparative purposes emphasized those characteristics which resemble or seem to resemble Western feudal practices and neglected other, dissimilar aspects, some of which were uniquely significant in shaping the evolution of the areas in question. For Westerners, the use of the feudal model necessarily created a deceptive sense of familiarity with societies that are different from their own.

Development in the 19th and 20th centuries
In the 19th century, influenced by Adam Smith and other Scottish thinkers, Karl Marx (1818–83) and Friedrich Engels (1820–95) made “the feudal mode of production” one stage in their visionary reading of Western historical development; the feudal model followed “the ancient mode of production” and preceded capitalism, socialism, and communism. Marx and Engels rejected the traditional understanding of feudalism as consisting of fiefs and relations among the elite and emphasized the lords’ exploitation of the peasants as the essence of the feudal mode of production. Marx and Engels did not try to establish that the feudal period had existed universally; they formulated for Asia the idea of a specific Asiatic mode of production. Still, by incorporating “the feudal mode of production” into their design, they endowed it with seminal significance. Their followers came to view the feudal stage as a necessary prerequisite for the emergence of socialism, and socialist scholars and activists sought traces of it throughout the world.

Marx and Engels’s model of Western historical development indicates how popular the feudal construct had become by the middle of the 19th century. Their modification of the construct to serve their own purposes demonstrates its pliancy. However, they were not unique in having shaped the feudal construct to suit their particular perspective. The Australian medieval historian John O. Ward isolated 10 different sets of phenomena that historians had associated with feudalism. Some employed narrow legalistic definitions like those elaborated by 16th-century lawyers. Others, following the English historian Thomas Madox (1666–1726/27) and the French historian Marc Bloch (1886–1944), equated feudalism with feudal society. They saw feudalism as encompassing many if not most aspects of medieval society: peasants, whether free, unfree, or semi-free; a ruling warrior class with subordinates compensated for military service by grants of land rather than money; fragmentation of power; and disorder—yet with the family and the state retaining their importance. The American historian Joseph R. Strayer (1904–87) laid special emphasis on the splintering of political and public power and authority, and he believed that systematized feudal institutions and customs were compatible with the formation of large political units, which he viewed as recognizable precursors of contemporary nation-states. Although Bloch and Strayer employed the feudal construct throughout their careers, both admitted the idiosyncrasy of the various definitions of the feudal labels that have been proposed, and both acknowledged that focusing on the construct inevitably obscures the human beings, both individuals and groups, whose actions historians are dedicated to comprehending.

Modern critiques
From the time of the French historian Louis Chantereau Le Febvre (1588–1658), questions were raised concerning the extent to which the feudal construct oversimplified and distorted the historical realities it was intended to capture. Chantereau Le Febvre denounced as futile the attempts of his contemporaries to deduce general rules from uncertain principles. He stressed the necessity of studying authentic acts and working “historically,” implying thereby that his contemporaries were not working in this fashion. He cautioned against reducing the great variety of fiefs to a single type, because each fief was different from the others. Despite Chantereau Le Febvre’s reservations, in the end he succumbed to current fashion and endorsed a simplified picture of feudal institutions. He did, however, edit and publish medieval documents demonstrating the difficulty of attaching precise meanings to such words as feudum and allodium.

Many modern historians have attempted to follow Chantereau Le Febvre’s admonitions and have studied these words and others, such as vassus (“vassal”), homo (“man”), and fidelis (“the faithful”), which figured centrally in the classic definitions of the feudal construct. By examining the contexts in which key words appear in a host of medieval acts and chronicles, they have demonstrated the wide range of meanings these words possessed and the difficulty of formulating simple and precise definitions of any of them. It is clear that in the Middle Ages those who fought (like those who farmed) were rewarded in different ways and were sometimes paid in money. Land was owned, controlled, and held in a variety of ways. Similarly, enterprising individuals used a range of tactics to augment their lands and wealth and increase their power. Standardization and regularization of tenurial and territorial bonds and of ceremonies such as homage accompanied the development of centralized government, as lords and kings utilized these devices (and many others) to buttress and extend their authority.

The extent to which surrender of property to a lord as a fief limited control and rights over the property has been investigated, as has the importance of such acts in creating ties between family groups that could be repeatedly renewed. The difficulty and danger of drawing sharp distinctions between the ceremonial practices of the nobility and the peasantry have been recognized, so too the importance of urban and parochial communities and the significance of spiritual and economic links between religious establishments and the laity. In studying the settlement of disputes, historians have emphasized the continuing importance of mediation and of judgments given by free men, especially members of the secular and ecclesiastical elite. Lordship has emerged as a more centrally important topic than the feudum. The quality of lords’ relationships with their dependents, free and unfree, has been debated, with some historians stressing the predatory, exploitative aspects of lordship and others emphasizing its protective, beneficial features.

Increased knowledge of the Middle Ages and greater sophistication regarding the constructs (and periods) that scholars have created in attempting to comprehend the past have sparked the search for appropriate terms to describe human institutions and societies. Although the feudal labels have lost their validity as terms to designate the realities of medieval society, they provide insight into the thought processes and assumptions of the lawyers and historians who formulated and utilized them between the 16th and the 20th century.

Elizabeth A.R. Brown



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