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Equatorial Guinea


formerly Spanish Guinea
Country, on the western coast of equatorial Africa and including Bioko Island.

Area: 10,831 sq mi (28,051 sq km). Population (2008 est.): 616,000. Capital: Malabo. The majority of the population are Bantu-speaking Fang people, with a minority of other ethnic groups. The indigenous people of Bioko are the Bubi, descendants of Bantu migrants from the mainland. Languages: Spanish, French (both official), Fang, Bubi, and others. Religions: Christianity (predominantly Roman Catholic, also other Christians); also Islam, traditional beliefs. Currency: CFA franc. Bordered by Cameroon and Gabon, Equatorial Guinea’s mainland region is separated by the Bight of Biafra from the island of Bioko to the northwest. The mainland has a coastal plain some 12 mi (20 km) wide, with a long stretch of beach, low cliffs to the south, and hills and plateaus to the east. The Mbini (Benito) River divides the region. Bioko consists of extinct volcanic cones and has several crater lakes and rich lava soils. Dense tropical rainforest prevails throughout the mainland and includes valuable hardwoods. Cacao, timber, and coffee long were the country’s primary exports, but since the 1990s petroleum has been the major export. Equatorial Guinea is a republic with one legislative house; the president is the chief of state and the head of government. Equatorial Guinea was ceded by the Portuguese to the Spanish in the late 18th century; it was frequented by slave traders, as well as by British and other merchants. Bioko was administered by British authorities in the early to mid-19th century before the Spanish took over in 1858. The mainland was not effectively occupied by the Spanish until the second half of the 19th century. Independence was declared in 1968, followed by a reign of terror and economic chaos under the dictatorial president Francisco Macías Nguema, who was overthrown by a military coup in 1979 and later executed. Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo became leader of the country in 1979. New constitutions were adopted in 1982 and 1991, but political power remained concentrated in the office of the president. In the early 21st century the standard of living of most people remained low, despite the country’s oil wealth.

Official name República de Guinea Ecuatorial (Spanish); République du Guinée Équatoriale (French) (Republic of Equatorial Guinea)
Form of government republic with one legislative house (House of Representatives of the People [100])
Head of state and government President assisted by the Prime Minister
Capital Malabo
Official languages Spanish; French
Official religion none
Monetary unit CFA franc (CFAF)
Population estimate (2008) 616,0001
Total area (sq mi) 10,831
Total area (sq km) 28,051
1Estimate of the U.S. Bureau of the Census International Database (March 2008 update).


country located on the west coast of Africa. It consists of Río Muni (also known as Continental), on the continent, and five islands (known collectively as insular Equatorial Guinea): Bioko (formerly Fernando Po), Corisco, Great Elobey (Elobey Grande), Little Elobey (Elobey Chico), and Annobón (Pagalu). Bata is the administrative capital of the mainland. Formerly a colony of Spain with the name Spanish Guinea, the country achieved its independence on Oct. 12, 1968. The capital is Malabo, on Bioko.

Continental Equatorial Guinea is a roughly rectangular territory bounded by Cameroon to the north and Gabon to the east and south. Near the coast are the small islands of Corisco and Great and Little Elobey. Bioko, by far the largest of the islands, lies off the coast of Cameroon in the Bight of Biafra. Annobón, a volcanic island, lies south of the Equator and almost 400 miles (640 km) to the southwest of Bioko.

Relief, drainage, and soils
Continental Equatorial Guinea
The coast of Río Muni, the continental portion of the country, consists of a long stretch of beach with low cliffs toward the south. A coastal plain about 12 miles (20 km) wide abuts the coastal hills, which lead to inland plateaus (called mesetas in Spanish) that rise toward the frontier with Gabon. There are several ranges of hills. The central range divides the Mbini (Benito) River basin to the north from the southern basin of the Utamboni (Mitèmboni) River. The Niefang-Mikomeseng range north of the Mbini River is somewhat lower. All these ranges form segments of the Cristal Mountains in Gabon.

The Mbini River (known as the Woleu River in Gabon) runs generally from east to west through central Río Muni; it is nonnavigable except for the first 12 miles (19 km) inland. To the north the Campo River (called the Ntem in French-speaking Africa) marks part of the frontier with Cameroon. The Utamboni River flows through the south. To the southwest the Muni is not itself a river but the estuary of various rivers of Gabon and southern Equatorial Guinea. To the east the de facto border with Gabon follows the meandering course of the Kié (Kyé) River, rather than the legal frontier at latitude 11° 20′ E. The rivers of mainland Equatorial Guinea provide limited hydroelectric power generation and waterpower at some lumbering sites.

The coastal plain is overlaid by sedimentary deposits. The hinterland is composed primarily of ancient metamorphic rocks that have undergone a lengthy process of leaching and erosion, so that the resulting soils are relatively infertile.

Insular Equatorial Guinea
The main island, Bioko, is about 45 miles (72 km) long and 22 miles (35 km) wide. Its extinct volcanic cones, crater lakes, and rich lava soils form a contrast with the landscape of the mainland. In the north Santa Isabel Peak (Basile Peak), an extinct volcano, soars to a height of 9,869 feet (3,008 metres). In the centre of the island, Moca Peak and the Moca Heights present an alpine type of landscape. The southern part of the island, remote and scarcely developed, consists of the Gran Caldera range, which is rugged and indented by torrents and crater lakes.

Bioko’s coast is largely inhospitable, consisting for the most part of a cliff about 60 feet (20 metres) high, broken occasionally by small inlets and beaches. The southern coast is very steep and dangerous to shipping; San Antonio de Ureca, located along this stretch, is among the most isolated settlements on the island. Malabo, located on the northern coast, has a relatively good harbour, built on the partially sunken rim of a volcano. The Musola River and other torrents are exploited for hydroelectric power.

Annobón is an isolated fragment of the country, about 93 miles (150 km) southwest of the island of São Tomé in São Tomé and Príncipe and about 400 miles (650 km) southwest of Bioko. Like the latter, it is a volcanic island but is less elevated, consisting of a conglomeration of cones, including Mount Santa Mina and Mount Quioveo. The highest elevation is about 2,200 feet (670 metres). The small, rugged island is not quite 4 miles (6 km) long by 2 miles (3 km) wide.

The climate of both the continental region and the islands is typically equatorial, with high temperatures, heavy rainfall, and much cloud cover most of the year. Local variations are due to differences in elevation and proximity to the sea.

The wet seasons in the continental region are from February to June and from September to December. Rainfall is higher on the coast than inland. In Bata the rainiest months are September, October, and November, with rainfall averaging about 95 inches (2,400 mm) a year. At Calatrava, farther south on the coast, it sometimes reaches 180 inches (4,600 mm). Inland, however, rainfall diminishes; Mikomeseng, for example, receives under 60 inches (1,500 mm) annually. Temperature is fairly constant throughout the year, averaging in the high 70s F (about 26 °C) annually. The temperature maxima are somewhat lower than in Bioko. The relative humidity, however, is higher than in Bioko.

Bioko’s dry season lasts from November to March, and the rest of the year is rainy. The average annual temperature is in the mid- to upper 70s F (about 25 °C), and temperature varies little throughout the year, reaching the high 80s F (about 32 °C) in the afternoon and dropping to the low 70s F (about 21 °C) at night. Most of the time the sky is cloudy and overcast. Extreme rainfall occurs in the south, with rain brought by monsoon winds amounting to about 450 inches (11,400 mm) a year around San Antonio de Ureca.

Plant and animal life
Much of the continental portion of Equatorial Guinea is covered by dense tropical rainforest that has long been exploited by the lumbering industry. More than 140 species of wood are found, of which the most important commercially are okume (Aucoumea klaineana), African walnut, and various mahoganies. A secondary forest growth has replaced the virgin rainforest. Mangroves fringe long stretches of the coast as well as riverbanks. Bioko has a greater variety of tropical vegetation, including mangroves.

The continental region has a rich animal life that includes gorillas, chimpanzees, various monkeys, leopards, buffalo, antelope, elephants, hippopotamuses, crocodiles, and various snakes, including pythons. Insects abound, including the tsetse fly and the malaria-bearing Anopheles mosquito, as well as hosts of ants, beetles, spiders, and termites. Bioko has no big game but has various monkeys, dwarf antelopes, and rodents, as well as mosquitoes and other insects.

Ethnic groups
The ethnic composition of the population is complex for a political unit so small in size. The Fang people, who fought their way to the sea in the 19th and early 20th centuries by subjugating other groups in their path, constitute well over half of the population. The Fang are dominant in the continental region; north of the Mbini River are the Ntumu Fang, and to the south of it are the Okak Fang. Holding political power on the mainland, the Fang tend to migrate to Bioko, where their leaders also hold most of the levers of political control. Coastal groups, such as the Kombe, Mabea, Lengi, Benga, and others, have been in contact with European traders much longer, and a limited amount of intermarriage between European and African ethnic groups has taken place, especially on the island of Corisco. Spanish ethnographers refer to these coastal peoples as playeros (“those who live on the beach”). Both the Fang majority and the playero groups are Bantu peoples.

The original inhabitants of Bioko are the Bubi, descendants of Bantu migrants from the mainland. The Bubi, unlike the other ethnic groups of the country, are a matrilineal society, wherein children inherit property from their mother. Early contacts with Europeans decimated the Bubi until only a few thousand remained early in the 20th century. During the colonial era they became the most pro-Spanish element of the African population, as they viewed the end of Spanish rule as a signal for the invasion of their island by the majority Fang. Indeed, significant numbers of mainlanders, most of them Fang, have flocked to Bioko since the mid-1960s. Following independence, Pres. Francisco Macías Nguema (ruled 1968–79), himself a Fang, harshly persecuted the Bubi people. Many Bubi, including accused separatists as well as most Bubi politicians, were killed in a campaign that some observers have called genocide. In 1998 antigovernment attacks on Bioko, allegedly carried out by a Bubi separatist organization, were met with severe reprisals, including the arrest and interrogation of hundreds of Bubi. In the early 21st century the Bubi, who by then made up approximately one-tenth of the country’s population, continued to suffer discrimination at the hands of the Fang-controlled government.

Bioko also is home to Fernandinos, descendants of former slaves liberated by the British during the 19th century who mingled with other emancipated Africans from Sierra Leone and Cuba, as well as with immigrants from other western African countries. Formerly constituting an influential bourgeoisie, they lost much of their status both when the Spanish acquired the island and after independence. Additional communities on the island are formed by crioulos (of mixed Portuguese and African origin) from the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe; there are also some Cameroonians. By about 1970 these different strata together constituted a minority on Bioko; the majority of the people were Nigerian contract labourers, who lived in compact colonies in Malabo or on plantations. Beginning in 1975, however, Nigeria repatriated at least 45,000 workers following reports of repressive conditions in Equatorial Guinea.

The inhabitants of Annobón represent only a tiny fraction of the population of Equatorial Guinea. They are descended from enslaved Africans brought there by the Portuguese when the island was a dependency of Portugal’s São Tomé colony.

Each ethnic group speaks its own language; among the most prominent of these languages are Fang and Bubi. The official languages of the country, however, are Spanish and French. Spanish is taught in schools and used by the press; it is the primary means of communication common to both Bioko and the mainland. As a result of Equatorial Guinea’s closer economic association with Francophone countries begun in 1983, French became a compulsory subject in schools in 1988 and an official language in 1997. In addition, an English-based creole is used extensively in petty commerce and forms the lingua franca on Bioko, and a Portuguese patois is spoken on both Bioko and Annobón.

While the vast majority of Equatorial Guineans are nominally Roman Catholic, the Bubi and mainlanders often retain traditional forms of worship. For example, the Mbwiti cult on the mainland, banned by the Spanish authorities, still has adherents. Under the regime of Francisco Macías Nguema, most churches were closed by presidential order in 1975, and the Roman Catholic Church was banned in 1978. These orders were rescinded following the coup that brought Obiang to power in 1979, but many denominations, notably Jehovah’s Witnesses, were proscribed once again in 1986. There is a small but significant population of Sunni Muslims.

Settlement patterns
The mainland is sparsely settled by farmers who practice traditional methods of agriculture. During the colonial period, Roman Catholic missions did much to encourage the population to construct “corridor” villages by the sides of roads; in most villages the church and the school figure prominently. The region was never a settler colony, and the few European plantations—mostly Spanish or German—that survived the colonial era have been abandoned.

Bioko, by contrast, was a plantation island; it retained for several years a larger number of plantation owners and managers and consequently withstood longer than the continental region the effect of independence upon its economy. Before independence there were about 1,900 plantations (known as fincas), which ranged in size from less than an acre to more than 5,000 acres (2,000 hectares). The largest plantations, those that had been established by Europeans, occupied the vast majority of the land; in 1962, for example, only about 2,800 acres (1,130 hectares) of farmland were in the possession of some 1,600 African farmers, grouped in cooperatives.

Malabo, the national capital, is a small city standing behind its crater harbour on the northern coast of Bioko. Created by the British in the 19th century, it was remodeled and developed by the Spanish. It is a rambling tropical city with a distinctly Spanish atmosphere—especially near the cathedral, the mission, and the government house. The indigenous Bubi people live mostly in villages on the lower slopes of Santa Isabel Peak, in northern Bioko, as well as in their traditional homeland, the Moca Heights. Another town of some importance on the island is Luba, on the southwest coast; it is linked with the capital by a paved road that runs through a series of Bubi settlements. Basilé, on the slopes of Santa Isabel Peak, provides a cool refuge for heat-weary residents of the capital.

The continental region was settled much later by the Spanish, so that Bata, the main settlement, long lacked the amenities of Malabo. Following independence, Fang migrants from the interior built suburbs around the sprawling port city. The growth of the oil and natural gas industry in the late 20th and early 21st centuries led to further development of the city.

Demographic trends
Dramatic political and economic changes during the latter part of the 20th century resulted in roller-coaster population shifts. The population was reduced by about one-third through the departure of some 110,000 people who fled the postindependence regime of Francisco Macías Nguema in the late 1970s; it had already been diminished by the repatriation of Nigerian plantation labourers earlier in the decade. During the 1960s Nigerian workers, often bringing their families, had settled in numbers believed to have reached 50,000 to 80,000 by the end of the decade. Political and economic conditions after independence gradually reduced these numbers, despite an agreement with Nigeria in 1972 for the recruitment of new labourers. Reports of virtual slave-labour conditions on plantations and of repressive killings by authorities in the mid-1970s turned this gradual exodus into a flood, further impoverishing Equatorial Guinea’s postindependence economy. Beginning in the 1980s, however, this outflow of people reversed dramatically as the discovery of significant reserves of petroleum and natural gas in the country buoyed its economy and brought an influx of foreigners seeking employment and economic opportunity. In the early 21st century the rate of population increase, population density, and life expectancy in Equatorial Guinea were lower than those of most other African countries.

Equatorial Guinea’s economy traditionally depended on three commodities—cocoa (from the cacao tree), coffee, and timber—but the discovery and exploitation of petroleum and natural gas changed the country’s economic profile virtually overnight in the 1980s. Petroleum now accounts for the vast majority of Equatorial Guinea’s exports and contributes more than four-fifths of its gross domestic product (GDP). Nevertheless, the standard of living of most people has not significantly improved, and farming continues to be the predominant occupation.

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
Before independence, the Spanish subsidized cocoa and coffee exports to Spain. The high-quality cocoa was the mainstay of the economy of Bioko, which possessed the right soil and climate for its intensive cultivation. Most of Equatorial Guinea’s cocoa is still produced on the island. As with other commodities, production suffered under the postindependence regime of Francisco Macías Nguema: Nigerian and local workers left the cocoa plantations; maintenance, output, and quality declined; and cocoa exports dropped to one-tenth of their former level. Exports of coffee almost ceased from island and mainland plantations, an exception being the small production of robusta coffee by Fang farmers in Río Muni.

Today, despite the changes in the economy wrought by the dramatic growth of the petroleum industry, the majority of people are still employed in agriculture. Many are subsistence farmers who clear the land by burning off the vegetation cover. Among the crops grown are cassava (manioc), sweet potatoes, oil palm fruit, plantains, bananas, coconuts, coffee, and cacao. Sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle are raised. Fishing contributes to the economy as well, and the timber industry remains significant.

Substantial reserves of petroleum and natural gas exist under the seafloor of Equatorial Guinea’s offshore waters. Once they began to be exploited in the late 20th century, hydrocarbons quickly dominated the economy. Petroleum soon became the primary export, and the country’s GDP increased dramatically in less than a decade; it continued to grow in the early 21st century. Deposits of gold, titanium, manganese, iron ore, and uranium exist but remain largely undeveloped.

Finance and trade
A major economic reorientation took place in December 1983, when Equatorial Guinea joined the Customs and Economic Union of Central Africa (which later became part of the Economic Community of Central African States). In January 1985 the country entered the Franc Zone, whereby its currency, the epkwele (formerly linked to the Spanish peseta), was replaced by the CFA (Communauté Financière Africaine) franc and linked to the French franc. With the phasing out of the French franc during 1999–2002, the CFA franc became linked to the euro.

Following the economic collapse of the mid-1970s, imports came to exceed exports. The gap was narrowed only by external aid—including large subsidies from Spain and help from many other countries and international agencies—which increased after the coup in 1979. With the rapid expansion of the oil industry in the 1980s and ’90s, however, the value of the country’s exports exceeded that of its imports by the end of the 20th century; the balance of trade remained positive into the 21st century. The United States, China, Côte d’Ivoire, and Spain, among others, are major trade partners of Equatorial Guinea.

At the turn of the 21st century, less than one-sixth of the country’s roads were paved. The road network on the mainland was adequate for the light traffic it was required to carry before independence, but it deteriorated in the 1970s. Bata is linked with the coastal town of Mbini by a tarred road. There is also a cross-country road from Bata, branching at Niefang and Ncue, to Ebebiyín, Mongomo, and Nsoc near the Cameroon frontier. On Bioko the road system is of a higher standard, with a semicircular tarred road linking Malabo and Luba to the eastern Bubi villages. There are no railways in the country.

The main ports are Malabo and Bata; the latter’s harbour was enlarged and modernized in the 1980s to accommodate a growing share of the country’s commerce. The mainland coastal settlements of Mbini and Kogo (Cogo) are minor ports of call. There are international airports at Malabo and Bata as well as several regional airports. National airlines have been unsuccessful.

Government and society
Constitutional framework
Under the constitution of 1991, Equatorial Guinea is a republic. Executive power is vested in the president, who is elected by direct universal suffrage for a seven-year term. The president appoints the prime minister and the Council of Ministers. The unicameral House of People’s Representatives constitutes the legislative branch of government, members of which are directly elected to five-year terms. The Supreme Tribunal in Malabo is the highest judicial authority; there are also territorial high courts and courts of the first instance in Malabo and Bata.

For administrative purposes, the country is divided into two régiones (regions), which are subdivided into seven provincias (provinces); the provinces are further divided into districts and municipalities.

Political process
The ruling party in Equatorial Guinea is the Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea (Partido Democrático de Guinea Ecuatorial; PDGE), formed in 1987. It was the only political party until 1991, when a new constitution allowing opposition parties was adopted. Since then several other parties have formed, including the Convergence for Social Democracy (Convergencia para la Democracia Social; CPDS) and the Popular Union (Unión Popular; UP). Opposition parties do not wield much influence in the government, however, as Pres. Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo—in office since overthrowing Francisco Macías Nguema in 1979—exercises extensive power. Obiang has won every election since taking office; likewise, the PDGE has maintained a decisive majority in the legislature. Many observers have criticized the country’s presidential and parliamentary elections as being irregular or fraudulent.

Education is compulsory and free for all children ages 6 to 11. Efforts have been made to improve educational opportunities, and illiteracy has declined over the years; more than four-fifths of the population is literate. The National University of Equatorial Guinea is located in Malabo.

Cultural life
Despite a veneer of Spanish culture and of Roman Catholic religion that is thicker in Bioko than on the mainland, many Equatorial Guineans live according to ancient customs, which have undergone a revival since independence. Among the Fang of the mainland, witchcraft, traditional music (in which the Fang harp, the xylophone, the great drums, and the wooden trumpet are used), and storytelling survive. Among the Bubi farmers of Bioko, some ancient customs are still followed as well.

The various regions and communities of Equatorial Guinea each have their own typical cuisine. Spanish cuisine also has influenced the cooking of the country. Commonly used ingredients are similar to those used in neighbouring countries—e.g., fish, shrimp, crayfish, pumpkin seeds, peanuts (groundnuts), and vegetables. Chocolate is used in a variety of recipes as well. One popular method of preparing fish involves wrapping it in banana or plantain leaves before cooking it over an open fire.

Several Equatorial Guinean writers have gained international acclaim for their Spanish-language works. Among the most prominent of these authors are fiction writer and anthologist Donato Ndongo-Bidyogo; poet, essayist, and dramatist Juan-Tomás Ávila Laurel; and poet and novelist María Nsue Angüe.

Athletes representing Equatorial Guinea first competed in the Olympic Games in 1984 in Los Angeles. In the 2000 Games in Sydney, swimmer Eric Moussambani drew cheers after winning a 100-metre freestyle heat; he had learned to swim earlier that year.

Tourist attractions include the country’s island beaches and Monte Alen National Park, located in the continental portion of Equatorial Guinea. The park’s thick tropical rainforest is home to gorillas, chimpanzees, and hundreds of species of birds.

René Pélissier
Ronald James Harrison-Church

The island of Bioko (formerly Fernando Po) was sighted by the Portuguese explorer Fernão do Pó, probably in 1472. At first it was called Formosa (“Beautiful”). Annobón was probably sighted by Ruy de Sequeira on a New Year’s Day (hence the name, which means “good year”) between 1472 and 1475, most likely that of 1474. By the Treaty of Tordesillas (June 7, 1494), the Portuguese had exclusive trade rights in Africa, and it was not until 1778 that they agreed to cede to Spain the islands of Annobón and Fernando Po as well as rights on the mainland coast between the Ogooué and Niger rivers. These cessions were designed to give Spain its own source of slaves in Africa for transport to Spanish America, where, in exchange, the Spanish confirmed the rights of the Portuguese west of the 50° W meridian in what is now Brazil. The Spanish were soon decimated by yellow fever on Fernando Po, and they withdrew in 1781. No European occupation was made on the mainland.

British administration
After the British abolition of the slave trade in 1807, bases were required by the Royal Navy for the effective suppression of the trade. Fernando Po was unoccupied and lay in a strategic situation from which the Niger mouths and the portion of western Africa known as the Slave Coast could be watched for slavers. In 1827 the Spanish leased bases for this purpose to the British at Port Clarence (later Santa Isabel, now Malabo), a fine deepwater harbour on the north coast, and in San Carlos Bay (now Luba Bay) on the west coast.

In the absence of the Spanish, the British also became responsible for administering the island. Thereafter the British resettled many freed slaves there, in default of knowing their origin or of being able to repatriate them. Freed slaves also came to the island from Sierra Leone and Jamaica, and in the 20th century the descendants of these several groups continued to speak a form of English. Because of the existence of these freed slaves and the lack of any Spanish administration in the area, the United Kingdom made several unsuccessful offers to Spain for the purchase of Fernando Po, particularly from 1839 to 1841. In 1843 the Royal Navy concentrated its antislavery patrol at Freetown in Sierra Leone, and its buildings on Fernando Po were sold to a Baptist mission.

Spanish Guinea
In 1844 the Spanish made a second effort at effective occupation of Fernando Po, and their first exploration of the mainland was carried out in the two decades ending in 1877. Meanwhile, the Spanish had expelled the British Baptists from Fernando Po in 1858, and in 1879 they began to use it as a penal settlement for Cubans. Following the Spanish-American War (1898), Spanish Guinea remained as Spain’s last significant tropical colony. Profiting from the weakness of Spain, France was able to confine mainland Spanish Guinea to its present limited extent. Economic development started only at that time and was concentrated on the richer and healthier Fernando Po. The mainland received significant attention from Spain only after the Spanish Civil War (1936–39).

In 1959 the status of Spanish Guinea was changed, and the region was reorganized into two provinces of overseas Spain, each of which was placed under a civil governor. The citizens, including the Africans, were granted the same rights as those enjoyed by the citizens of Spain. In 1963 a measure of economic and administrative autonomy for the two provinces—which were henceforth known as Equatorial Guinea—was agreed on by plebiscite.

The movement toward independence began to take shape at the end of 1967. Early the following year the Spanish government suspended autonomous political control and, with the subsequent approval of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), proposed that a national referendum be held to approve the new constitution. The constitution was overwhelmingly approved on August 11 and was followed by parliamentary elections in September and by the proclamation of independence on Oct. 12, 1968.

The first president was Francisco Macías Nguema (also known as Macías Nguema Biyogo Masie). After his election in 1971, he assumed wide powers and pushed through a constitution that named him president for life in July 1972. He assumed absolute personal powers in 1973, and the island of Fernando Po was renamed Macias Nguema Biyogo Island in his honour. He controlled the radio and press, and foreign travel was stopped. In 1975–77 there were many arrests and summary executions, which brought protests from world leaders and the human rights organization Amnesty International. During this period there was a mass exodus by citizens of Equatorial Guinea, and the Nigerian government repatriated its nationals, who had been working as migrant labourers on Equatorial Guinea’s plantations, by 1976.

Macías was overthrown in 1979 by his nephew, Lieut. Col. Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and executed. Obiang led a Supreme Military Council, to which he added some civilians in 1981. A less authoritarian constitution was instituted in 1982, followed by the election of 41 unopposed candidates to the legislature in 1983. Although another new constitution in 1991 provided for a multiparty state—leading to the first multiparty elections, held in 1993—there was no indication that Obiang would willingly give up power, and his regime was the subject of much international criticism for its oppressive nature. In the 1990s and early 2000s, the president and the members of his party repeatedly won reelection by lopsided margins in ballots that were fraught with charges of fraud. Further, accusations abounded that a clique surrounding the president had systematically pocketed the bulk of the country’s considerable oil revenue, which grew dramatically beginning in the late 20th century. As it had done since the 1980s, Obiang’s regime continued to claim that it was the subject of several attempted coups, but most of the allegations could not be confirmed. A notable exception was a plot to replace Obiang with exiled opposition leader Severo Moto; uncovered in 2004, the plan involved foreign mercenaries. In 2008 a Malabo court sentenced a British mercenary, Simon Mann, to 34 years in prison for his role in the affair.

Ronald James Harrison-Church



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