Dictionary of Art and Artists



History of

Architecture and Sculpture



















Part I. ARCHITECTURE - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
Part II. ARCHITECTURE - 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
Part III. ARCHITECTURE - 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29




In 1921, in other words, two years after Gropius had founded the Bauhaus, four years after De Stijl had first appeared in the Netherlands and a whole seven years after the first sketches for his "Domino" frame system, Le Corbusier employed a concept in an article in the magazine "L'Esprit Nouveau" which expressed nothing less than the re-invention of the house: the "machine for living in". "L'Esprit Nouveau" was a platform which he had created himself, and which he used, along with Amedee Ozenfant, to attack the - in France still dominant - traditions of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, the "falsity, make-up and tricks of the courtesan" which it taught, and the "barren flourishes of its plans ... the foliage, pilasters and crowns" in which it immersed itself. "We have acquired a taste for clean air and full sunlight ... The house is a machine for living in, bathrooms, sun, hot and cold water, temperature which can be adjusted as required, food storage, hygiene, beauty in harmonious proportions. A chair is a machine for sitting in: Maple showed us the way. Basins are machines for washing in: Twyford invented them. With the exception of the lime-blossom or camomile teatime hour, modern life, the world of our activity, has created its own objects: clothing, the fountain pen, the razor blade, the typewriter, the telephone, wonderful office furniture ... the 'Innovation' suitcase ... the limousine, the ocean liner and the airplane."

Le Corbusier demonstrated in comprehensive sets of drawings how his passionate calls for a new contemporary architecture could be realized in practice. He firstly applied the industrial principle of factory buildings to a framework for individual design. In his "Maison Domino", a grid of supports and continuous load-bearing ceilings formed a skeleton which, with the insertion of as many walls as desired, enabled an endless variety of plans to be created within the same construction system. In 1920 he designed the "Maison Citrohan", in which two load-bearing walls delimited the sides of a cuboid, opened in between by generous windows and entered via an outside staircase. In 1922, Le Corbusier published a design for a new city entitled "Une Ville contemporaine". The commercial centre comprised cruciform office towers grouped around an airport, and was surrounded by grassy shopping arcades, leisure facilities and slim apartment blocks. But with its long avenues and the rigid central symmetry of its visual axes, the overall plan remained almost baroque and the whole a Utopian fantasy. Le Corbusier built only single houses in the twenties, which only came together to form an estate in Pessac. After much dispute he succeeded at least in demonstrating his concept of Immeubles-Villas in the scale model of a housing unit shown at the Paris Exposition Internationale of 1925. He recommended visitors to picture the pavilion fifteen metres above the ground as part of a concentrated block system.

For Le Corbusier, the only conceivable basis for an architecture corresponding to the precise world of machines was geometry: prisms, cubes, cylinders, pyramids and spheres as "pure volumes". Concept and rhythm should obey equations just as in mathematics, while self-imposed "size regulators" should curb the arbitrariness which endangered the "beneficial effect of order". Although the unfamiliar new forms of his buildings and their experimental details at times defeated their builders, often leading to considerable structural defects, they proved that architecture which conforms to mathematical premisses can be more than mechanical stereometry. Examples here include the Vaisons La Roche and Jeanneret-Raaf in Auteuil, the Villa Stein in Garches and the Villa Savoye in Poissy. This is architecture as the "masterly, correct and magnificent play of masses brought together in light", as Le Corbusier stated in his "Three Reminders to Architects". In 1927, in conjunction with his buildings for the Weifienhof Estate in Stuttgart, Le Corbusier formulated his "fundamentally new aesthetic", as he humbly called it, in a five-point programme whose essential elements were the pilotis, the roof garden, the free plan, the strip window and the free facade composition. Single posts took the place of walls: "These pilotis are placed at the same specific intervals, without taking into consideration the inner organization of the house. They rise directly from the ground ... and elevate the ground floor ... The building site remains the garden ... This area is regained on the flat roof ... as a rooftop terrace, a rooftop garden." That the city skyline in the age of reinforced concrete should be nothing but a "tete-a-tete between the stars and the shingles" was sheer anachronism to Le Corbusier's mind. He sought to overcome the traditional contrast of "front" - a facade exposed to traffic - and "back" - crammed into a narrow courtyard through the division into "top" and "bottom". "You simply reverse the plan, you flee the street, you strive towards the light." Le Corbusier increasingly abandoned the use of continuous intermediate ceilings and organized his plans around open, two-storey living halls.

Stairs were replaced by ramps, thus creating "architectural promenades". Above all, the outer wall lost its significance as a static element and became a "membrane of any desired thickness". Long, horizontal window bands replaced the traditional tall French windows, an innovation which - today surprisingly -sparked a central debate among French Modernists similar to the discussion surrounding the flat versus gable roof in Germany. Even the progressive Auguste Perret insisted that windows should stand upright "like a man". But Le Corbusier took the destruction of the typical facade even further than this: "Through the balcony-like projection of the floor over the pilotis, the entire facade is extended beyond the building skeleton. It thereby loses its load-bearing character ... and thus has freedom of composition." A freedom which was only limited by the bounds of the technically possible.



In France, the most distinguished representative of the International Style during the 1920s was the Swiss-born architect Le Corbusier (Charles Edouard Jeanneret, 1886-1965). At that time he built only private housesfrom necessity, not choicebut these are as important as Wright's Prairie School houses. Le Corbusier called them machines a habiter (machines to be lived in), a term intended to suggest his admiration for the clean, precise shapes of machinery, not the Futurist desire for "mechanized living." (The paintings of his friend Fernand Leger during those years reflect the same attitude; see fig.
1069. Le Corbusier was himself an excellent painter in this vein.) Perhaps he also wanted to imply that his houses were so different from conventional homes as to constitute a new species.

Such is indeed our impression as we approach the most famous of them, the Savove House at Poissy-sur-Seine (fig. 1186). It resembles a low, square box resting on stiltspillars of reinforced concrete that form part of the structural skeleton and reappear to divide the "ribbon windows" running along each side of the box. The flat, smooth surfaces deny all sense of weight and stress Le Corbusier's preoccupation with abstract "space blocks."

In order to find out how the box is subdivided, we must enter it (fig. 1187). We then realize that this simple "package" contains living spaces that are open as well as closed, separated by glass walls. Within the house, we are still in communication with the outdoors: views of the sky and the surrounding terrain are everywhere to be seen. Yet we enjoy complete privacy, since an observer on the ground cannot see us unless we stand next to a window. The functionalism of the Savoye House thus is governed by a "design for living," not by mechanical efficiency.

1186. LE CORBUSIER. Savoye House, Poissy-sur-Seine, France. 1929-30

1186. LE CORBUSIER. Savoye House, Poissy-sur-Seine, France. 1929-30

1186. LE CORBUSIER. Savoye House, Poissy-sur-Seine, France. 1929-30


Interior, Savoye House



Terrace garden with a ramp leading up to the roof level, Savoye House
The bathroom with tiled divan bed, Savoye House


Abandoning the abstract purism of the International Style, Le Corbusier's postwar work shows a growing preoccupation with sculptural, even anthropomorphic, effects. Thus the Unite d'Habitation, a large apartment house in Marseilles (fig. 1197), is a "box on stilts" like the Savoye House, but the pillars are not thin rods. Their shape now expresses their muscular strength in a way that makes us think of Doric columns. The exposed staircase on the flank, too, is vigorously sculptural, and the flat plane of the all-glass facade has a honeycomb screen of louvers and balconies that forms a sunbreak but also enhances the three-dimensional quality of the structure. This projecting screen has proved to be an invention of great importance, practically and aesthetically: it is now a standard feature of modern architecture throughout the tropics. (Le Corbusier himself introduced it in India and Brazil).

Unite d'Habitation Apartment House, Marseilles.

The most revolutionary building of the mid-twentieth century, however, is Le Corbusier's church of Notre-Dame-du-Haut at Ronchamp in eastern France (figs. 1198-1200). Rising like a medieval fortress from a hillcrest, its design is so irrational that it defies analysis, even with the aid of perspective diagrams. The play of curves and countercurves is here as insistent as in Gaudi's Casa Mila. though the shapes are now simple and more dynamic. The massive walls seem to obey an unseen force that makes them slant and curl like paper. And the overhanging root suggests the brim of an enormous hat, or the bottom of a ship split lengthwise by the sharp-edged buttress from which it is suspended.

This evocation of the dim, prehistoric past is quite intentional: asked to create a sanctuary on a hilltop, Le Corbusier must have felt that this was the primeval task of architecture, placing him in a direct line of succession with the builders of Stonehenge, the ziggurats of Mesopotamia, and the Greek temples. Hence, he also consciously avoids any correlation between exterior and interior. The doors are concealed; we must seek them out like clefts in a hillside. To pass through them is much like entering a secretand sacredcave.

Only inside do we sense the specifically Christian aspect of Ronchamp. The light, channeled through stained-glass windows so tiny that they seem hardly more than slits or pinpricks on the exterior, cuts widening paths through the thickness of the wall, and thus becomes once more what it had been in medieval architecture: the visible counterpart of the Light Divine. There is true magic in the interior of Ronchamp, but also a strangely disquieting quality, a nostalgia for the certainties of a faith that is no longer unquestioned. Ronchamp mirrors the spiritual condition of the modern age, which is a measure of its greatness as a work of art.

1198. LE CORBUSIER.  Notre-Dame-du-Haut (from the southeast), Ronchamp, France.

Interior, Notre-Dame-du-Haut
1200. Bird's-eye perspective diagram of Notre-Dame-du-Haut (from the northeast)

LE CORBUSIER. The Chapel of Notre Dame du Haut, 1950-55
photographs: Dan Delgano

LE CORBUSIER.  The Chapel of Notre Dame du Haut, 1950-55
photographs: Dan Delgano


Le Corbusier

Le Corbusier, byname of Charles-Édouard Jeanneret (born Oct. 6, 1887, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switz.—died Aug. 27, 1965, Cap Martin, France), internationally influential Swiss architect and city planner, whose designs combine the functionalism of the modern movement with a bold, sculptural expressionism. He belonged to the first generation of the so-called International school of architecture and was their most able propagandist in his numerous writings. In his architecture he joined the functionalist aspirations of his generation with a strong sense of expressionism. He was the first architect to make a studied use of rough-cast concrete, a technique that satisfied his taste for asceticism and for sculptural forms.

Education and early years
Le Corbusier was born in a small town in the mountainous Swiss Jura region, since the 18th century the world’s centre of precision watchmaking. All his life he was marked by the harshness of these surroundings and the puritanism of a Protestant environment. At 13 years of age, Le Corbusier left primary school to learn the enamelling and engraving of watch faces, his father’s trade, at the École des Arts Décoratifs at La Chaux-de-Fonds. There, Charles L’Eplattenier, whom Le Corbusier later called his only teacher, taught him art history, drawing, and the naturalist aesthetics of Art Nouveau.

It was L’Eplattenier who decided that Le Corbusier, having completed three years of studies, should become an architect and gave him his first practice on local projects. From 1907 to 1911, on his advice, Le Corbusier undertook a series of trips that played a decisive role in the education of this self-taught architect. During these years of travel through central Europe and the Mediterranean, he made three major architectural discoveries. The Charterhouse of Ema at Galluzzo, in Tuscany, provided a contrast between vast collective spaces and “individual living cells” that formed the basis for his conception of residential buildings. Through the 16th-century Late Renaissance architecture of Andrea Palladio in the Veneto region of Italy and the ancient sites of Greece, he discovered classical proportion. Finally, popular architecture in the Mediterranean and in the Balkan peninsula gave him a repertory of geometric forms and also taught him the handling of light and the use of landscape as an architectural background.

At the age of 30 he returned to live in Paris, where his formation was completed a year later when he met the painter and designer Amédée Ozenfant, who introduced him to sophisticated contemporary art. Ozenfant initiated Le Corbusier into Purism, his new pictorial aesthetic that rejected the complicated abstractions of Cubism and returned to the pure, simple geometric forms of everyday objects. In 1918 they wrote and published together the Purist manifesto, Après le cubisme. In 1920, with the poet Paul Dermée, they founded a polemic avant-garde review, L’Esprit Nouveau. Open to the arts and humanities, with brilliant collaborators, it presented ideas in architecture and city planning already expressed by Adolf Loos and Henri van de Velde, fought against the “styles” of the past and against elaborate nonstructural decoration, and defended functionalism.

The association with Ozenfant was the beginning of Le Corbusier’s career as a painter and as a writer. Ozenfant and Le Corbusier (then still known as Jeanneret) together wrote a series of articles for L’Esprit Nouveau that were to be signed with pseudonyms. Ozenfant chose Saugnier, the name of his grandmother, and suggested for Jeanneret the name Le Corbusier, the name of a paternal forebear. The articles written by Le Corbusier were collected and published as Vers une architecture. Later translated as Toward a New Architecture (1923), the book is written in a telling style that was to be characteristic of Le Corbusier in his long career as a polemicist. “A house is a machine for living in” and “a curved street is a donkey track, a straight street, a road for men” are among his famous declarations. His books, whose essential lines of thought were born of travels and lectures hardly changed at all in 45 years, constituted a bible for succeeding generations of architects. Among the most famous are Urbanisme (1925; The City of Tomorrow, 1929), Quand les cathédrales étaient blanches (1937; When the Cathedrals Were White, 1947), La Charte d’Athènes (1943), Propos d’urbanisme (1946), Les Trois Établissements humains (1945), and Le Modular I (1948; The Modular, 1954).

L’Esprit Nouveau was the springboard for Le Corbusier’s entrance into practice. In 1922 he became associated with his cousin Pierre Jeanneret, and together they opened a studio. The association of the two cousins lasted until 1940. It corresponds to the first of the two main periods, separated by World War II, that can be distinguished in Le Corbusier’s work; the second period covers the years from 1944 to the architect’s death in 1965.

The first period
The years from 1922 to 1940 were as remarkably rich in architecture as in city planning projects. As was always to be the case with Le Corbusier, unbuilt projects, as soon as they were published and circulated, created as much of a stir as did the finished buildings. In the Salon d’Automne of 1922, Le Corbusier exhibited two projects that expressed his idea of social environment and contained the germ of all the works of this period. The Citrohan House displays the five characteristics by which the architect five years later defined his conception of what was modern in architecture: pillars supporting the structure, thus freeing the ground beneath the building; a roof terrace, transformable into a garden and an essential part of the house; an open floor plan; a facade free of ornamentation; and windows in strips that affirm the independence of the structural frame. The interior provides the typical spatial contrast between open, split-level living space and the cell-like bedrooms. An accompanying diorama of a city illustrated ahead of its time the concept of green parks and gardens at the foot of a cluster of skyscrapers.

The ideas for city planning set forth at the Salon d’Automne, an annual semi-official exhibition, were taken up again and developed in 1925 at the Exposition des Arts Décoratifs in Paris, in a pavilion that was to be a “manifesto of the esprit nouveau.” In this little duplex-flat, the interior walls violently coloured under the influence of the painter Fernand Léger, Le Corbusier exhibited his first collection of industrially produced furniture.

During these years, in fact, Le Corbusier’s social ideals were realized on two occasions. One of these was in 1925–26 when, thanks to the financial support of an industrialist, he built at Pessac, near Bordeaux, a workers’ city of 40 houses in the style of the Citrohan House; the scorn for local tradition and the unconventional use of colour provoked hostility on the part of municipal authorities, who refused to provide a public water supply. Pessac was thus deprived of inhabitants for six years, and Le Corbusier did not forget this affront. In 1927 the architect participated in the international exposition of the Deutscher Werkbund, an association of various groups concerned with producing functional objects of high aesthetic value. For this exposition Le Corbusier constructed two houses in the experimental residential quarter of Weissenhof at Stuttgart.

Although Le Corbusier was from the beginning most interested in building for large numbers of people, during the prewar period he built primarily for privileged individuals who commissioned individual houses. They were functional in design and ascetic in appearance, incorporating rigorous geometric forms and bare facades. The first was for Ozenfant in 1922, followed by, among others: the house of the Swiss collector Raoul La Roche (1923), which later became the quarters of the Le Corbusier Foundation in Paris (1968); the villa (1927) of Michael Stein, a brother of the expatriate American writer and patron of Fauvism and Cubism Gertrude Stein; the Villa Savoye (1929–31), at Poissy, set in a lush, rural landscape on slender concrete pillars.

In 1927 Le Corbusier participated in the competition set by the League of Nations for the design of its new centre in Geneva. His project, with its wall of insulating and heating glass, is one of the finest examples of the architect’s gift for functional analysis. For the first time anywhere, he proposed an office building for a political organization that was not a Neoclassical temple but corresponded in its structure and design to a strict analysis of function. This plan was to become the prototype of all future United Nations buildings. It probably would have shared a first prize but was eliminated on the grounds of not having been drawn up in India ink as the rules of the competition specified. After the disappointment of Pessac, this disqualification, which was almost certainly the result of a conspiracy on the part of conservative members of the jury, further embittered Le Corbusier in his attitude toward official architectural circles. The scandal accompanying the elimination of his design, however, gave him needed publicity by identifying him with modern avant-garde architecture. An immediate consequence of the Geneva affair was the creation, in La Sarraz, Switz., in 1928, of the International Congresses of Modern Architecture (CIAM), intended at first to defend the avant-garde architectural values defeated in Geneva. By 1930 the organization had become oriented toward city planning theory. Le Corbusier, as secretary of the French section, played an influential role in the five prewar congresses and especially in the fourth, which issued in 1933 a declaration that elaborated some of the basic principles of modern architecture.

The publicity from the Geneva competition also made possible for Le Corbusier a lecture tour in South America that was the source for his Précisions sur un état présent de l’architecture et de l’urbanisme (1930; “Reflections on the Present State of Architecture and Urbanism”) and a trip to Moscow, where he was able to make contact with avant-garde constructivist architects and won the competition for the Centrosoyuz building (1929–35).

Le Corbusier constructed two other important buildings during this period, the Salvation Army Hostel in Paris, with its attempt at a “breathing” glass wall conceived as an unopenable glass surface equipped with an air conditioning system (a technological and financial failure), and the Swiss Dormitory at the Cité Universitaire in Paris (1931–32). In the latter structure he set the dormitory area apart from the common services areas located in a separate building. The two segments were connected by a stairway tower. Surfaces were left largely unfinished, and, for the first time, the massive pillars took on a sculptural value. At this point Le Corbusier’s rational functionalism began to be balanced by a desire for expression.

The end of the 1930s saw such especially famous projects as the masterplans for Algiers (1938–42) and Buenos Aires (1938); the building for the Ministry of Education and Health in Rio de Janeiro (1936); and an infinitely expandable museum for Philippeville (1938), in French North Africa. There was also a trip to the United States (1935), where Le Corbusier was already famous.

Le Corbusier’s diverse activities corresponded to a chosen life-style. He was not a teacher, like his colleague Walter Gropius, but the boss, who shut himself up alone in his office while his collaborators, who had come from all over the world and some of whom would later become famous, worked outside in the long hall that served as a studio. Le Corbusier came to his office only in the afternoons. His break with Ozenfant, in 1925, had not interrupted his painting career, and he usually spent his mornings painting at home. He was, by the mid-1930s, marked by the influence of Fernand Léger, who remained one of his few good friends.

The war years
World War II and the German occupation of France interrupted his activity as a builder and a traveller and his 20-year association with Pierre Jeanneret, who, unlike Le Corbusier, had joined the French Résistance. Although he was prepared to work with the Vichy government, there was little building being done at the time in France, and his only activities were painting, writing, and reflection.

Le Corbusier’s thoughts during this time led to the elaboration of the first bases of the “Modulor” concept, a scale of harmonic measures that set architectural elements in proportion to human stature. This theory was finally perfected in 1950, and Le Corbusier used it in designing all his subsequent buildings, wishing them to incorporate “a human scale.” By the time the war ended, Le Corbusier had welded the attacks launched against him by representatives of traditional architecture into a myth. He had become, for the public, the Picasso of architecture, and, for architecture students, the symbol of modernity.

The second period
Le Corbusier thought that he would finally be able to apply his theories of planning in the reconstruction of France. He prepared in 1945 two plans for the cities of Saint Dié and La Pallice-Rochelle. At Saint Dié, in the Vosges Mountains, he proposed regrouping the 30,000 inhabitants of the destroyed town into five functional skyscrapers. These plans were rejected, but they subsequently circulated throughout the world and became doctrine. Le Corbusier was bitter, however, and his bitterness increased when he was named a member of the jury of architects for the construction of the United Nations building in New York City instead of being asked to design it himself.

At last, thanks to the unlimited support of the French government, Le Corbusier was given the opportunity to construct a large (private) housing complex; he was commissioned to build, in Marseille, a residential complex that embodied his vision of a social environment.

The Marseille project (unité d’habitation) is a vertical community of 18 floors. The 1,800 inhabitants are housed in 23 types of duplex (i.e., split-level) apartments. Common services include two “streets” inside the building, with shops, a school, a hotel, and, on the roof, a nursery, a kindergarten, a gymnasium, and an open-air theatre. The apartments are conceived as individual “villas” stacked in the concrete frame like bottles in a rack. It was completed in 1952, and two more unítés were built at other locations in France, at Nantes and Briey, as well as others in West Berlin.

Two religious buildings in France were commissioned as a result of the influence of the Dominican father Reverend Couturier, creator of the review L’Art Sacré. The more lyrical of the two, the chapel Notre-Dame-du-Haut at Ronchamp (1950–55), sacrifices Le Corbusier’s famous principles of apparent functionalism; the wall has been built to a double thickness for visual effect and the roof, which appears to be suspended, actually rests on a forest of supports. More brutal and austere is the convent of Sainte-Marie-de-la-Tourette at Eveux-sur-Arbresle, near Lyon. The square building imposes a fortress of concrete in a natural setting. In the three-tiered facade of glass at la Tourette, Le Corbusier first employed panes of glass set at “musical” intervals to obtain a lyrical effect. Le Corbusier’s reputation in France was established with two large expositions of his work in Paris in 1953 and in 1962.

Only from 1950 on did Le Corbusier become active on a large scale outside of France. In 1951 the government of the Punjab named him architectural advisor for the construction of its new capital, Chandīgarh. For the first time in his life, Le Corbusier was able to apply his principles of city planning on a metropolitan scale. Totally without reference to local tradition he designed the Palace of Justice, the Secretariat, and the Palace of Assembly. Unfinished concrete, with windows sheltered by enormous concrete sunshades, the sculptural facades, swooping rooflines, and monumental ramps are principal elements of his architecture, which immediately influenced architects all over the world. He built the National Museum of Western Art in Tokyo (1960), the Carpenter Visual Art Center at Harvard University (1964), and designed an Exposition Pavilion in Zürich that was constructed posthumously (1964).

Le Corbusier was not greatly impressed by his late recognition. He seemed to prefer the image of a solitary and persecuted genius. Nevertheless, he continued to conceive new projects until the end of his life: an art centre for Frankfurt (1963), the Olivetti computer centre in Milan (1963), the Palais des Congrès in Strasbourg (1964), and the French embassy in Brasília (1964). Le Corbusier died suddenly in 1965 while swimming. The man who had thought himself so misunderstood in his own time was given a national funeral, and in 1968 the Le Corbusier Foundation was created.

Françoise Choay

Encyclopædia Britannica


Le Corbusier.
Duplex for La Roche and Jeanneret-Raaf in Auteuil,
Pars, 1923

Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret.
"Pavilion de L'Esprit Nouveau" at the "Exposition Internationale des
Arts Decoratifs et Industriels Modernes" in Paris, 1925

Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret.
"Pavilion de L'Esprit Nouveau", 1925

Le Corbusier.
"Immeubles-Villas", 1922

Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret.
"Quartiers Modernes Fruges" Estate in Bordeaux-Pessac, France, 1925

Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret.
"Quartiers Modernes Fruges" Estate in Bordeaux-Pessac, France, 1925

Plans of the "gratte-ciel" duplexes


Discuss Art

Please note: site admin does not answer any questions. This is our readers discussion only.

| privacy