Dictionary of Art and Artists



History of

Architecture and Sculpture



















Part I. ARCHITECTURE - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
Part II. ARCHITECTURE - 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
Part III. ARCHITECTURE - 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29



Hugh A. Stubbins, Werner Dutttmann, Franz Mocken, Fred Severud.


Hugh Asher Stubbins

Hugh Asher Stubbins, Jr., American architect (b. Jan. 11, 1912, Birmingham, Ala.—d. July 5, 2006, Cambridge, Mass.), was a prolific and versatile architect who designed compelling buildings in a range of styles and locales, including Congress Hall (1957) in Berlin, the Citicorp Center (1978) in New York City, and the Federal Reserve Bank (1978) in Boston. Stubbins was perhaps best known for his design of the Ronald W. Reagan Presidential Library and Museum (1991) in Simi Valley, Calif. The sprawling facility was built in the California Mission Revival style. Stubbins held a master’s degree in architecture (1935) from the Harvard Graduate School of Design. His firm, Hugh Stubbins and Associates, was based in Cambridge. Stubbins’s last design was the Landmark Tower (1993) in Yokohama, Japan; at 60 stories, it was Japan’s tallest building. Stubbins was named a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1957 and of the American Institute of Architects (AIA) in 1960. He was the recipient of the AIA’s National Honor Award in 1979.

Encyclopædia Britannica


Hugh A. Stubbins with Werner Dutttmann and Franz Mocken (arch.), Fred Severud (eng.).
Benjamin Franklin Hall in Berlin, 1957





Saarinen is linked to Berg by Pier Luigi Nervi
(1891— 1979), who during the 1930s and 1940s pioneered the investigation of ferroconcrete in designs tor aircraft hangars that provided the point of departure for all future developments in this vein. Nervi was the twentieth-century counterpart to Gustave Eiffel: a structural engineer with a bold sense of form and an even more daring vision. The culmination of Nervi's efforts was the Sports Palace designed with Annibale Vitellozzi for the 1960 Olympics in Rome (figs. 1204 and 1205). From the outside, the roof appears as a thin covering whose light weight and flexibility are emphasized by the scalloped edges, so that it seems to have been draped over the Y-shaped supports radiating outward, like flying buttresses. The effect inside is even more remarkable. The honeycombed roof, nearly 200 feet in diameter, recalls the interior of the Pantheon, with its great oculus (see fig. 250). A marvel of engineering, it seems to float effortlessly, like the dome of Hagia Sophia, in a pool of light without visible support (compare fig. 330).

PIER LUIGI NFRVI and ANNIBALE VITELLOZZI. Sports Palace, Rome. 1956-57

PIER LUIGI NFRVI and ANNIBALE VITELLOZZI. Sports Palace, Rome. 1956-57

PIER LUIGI NFRVI and ANNIBALE VITELLOZZI. Sports Palace, Rome. 1956-57

Interior, Sports Palace, Rome


Pier Luigi Nervi

Pier Luigi Nervi, (born June 21, 1891, Sondrio, Italy—died Jan. 9, 1979, Rome), Italian engineer and architect, internationally renowned for his technical ingenuity and dramatic sense of design, especially as applied to large-span structures built of reinforced concrete. His important works include a prefabricated 309-foot-span arch for the Turin Exhibition (1949–50) and the first skyscraper in Italy, the Pirelli Building (1955) in Milan, a collaborative design.

Nervi graduated from the University of Bologna in 1913. During World War I he served as a lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers of the Italian army, and after the war he worked as an engineer in Bologna and Florence. In 1926–27 he designed his first significant work, a cinema in Naples, and followed it with the municipal stadium (Berta Stadium) in Florence, built in 1930–32.

In 1932 Nervi and a cousin in Rome formed the contracting firm of Nervi and Bartoli, with which he would remain through the rest of his career. In 1935 the Italian air force held a competition for a series of hangars to be built throughout Italy. Nervi conceived them as concrete vaults, with huge spans, that could be constructed at low cost, and he was commissioned for the project. Between 1935 and 1941 he built hangars in Obertello, Orvieto, and Torre del Lago. All of these structures were destroyed during World War II.

Each of these early structures showed the growth of conceptual design that resulted from Nervi’s ceaseless search for new solutions to structural problems. His creativity was not confined to the design of buildings; during World War II, he attempted to construct vessels made of concrete for the Italian navy, but the project was not completed. After the war, he did succeed in building a 165-ton, motor-powered, concrete sailboat, with a hull 1.4 inches (3.6 cm) thick. Subsequently he built a 38-foot (11.6-metre) ketch, the Nennele, with a hull only a half inch thick. For both of these vessels, he used ferrocemento, a material of his own invention, composed of dense concrete, heavily reinforced with evenly distributed steel mesh that gives it both lightness and strength.

This material was vital in Nervi’s design for a complex he built for the Turin Exhibition in 1949–50—a prefabricated structure in the form of a corrugated cylindrical arch, spanning 309 feet (93 m), based on modular components of glass and ferrocemento. Without the structural properties of this material, the entire conception would have been infeasible.

A close relationship between Nervi’s work and his austere life was evident. His solutions to building problems were always direct, transmitting to the ground by the shortest path the stresses developed within the structures. His works were relatively unaffected by the changes in taste that accompanied the advent of new forms in architecture. As a professor at the University of Rome from 1947, Nervi taught that a designer can develop truthful solutions in three ways: by understanding the pure harmony of the laws of the physical world that regulate the equilibrium of forces and the resistance of materials; by honestly interpreting the essential factors of each problem; and by rejecting the limitations of the solutions of the past.

In 1950, when the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) decided to build its new headquarters in Paris, Nervi was one of the architects selected to design it. Marcel Breuer, one of his collaborators, described Nervi’s participation in the project as “a continuous search for a system: a system of geometric rhythm,” and later he said of him: “If there is a notion that arrogance and reckless irresponsibility are the very attributes of genius, a notion that to be a genius means not to be quite human, there is Nervi to disprove this notion.”

In 1955, in association with a group of architects, Nervi helped design the first skyscraper in Italy, the Pirelli Building; it was the first office building to use a long-span structure—80 feet (25 m). Although architects and engineers in the United States had long experience in the design and construction of skyscrapers, they had invariably designed them around frameworks consisting of series of smaller spans. For the Pirelli Building, Nervi used experimental models—as he often had—which he tested in the laboratory at Bergamo. His second skyscraper was built in Montreal, again in collaboration, and his third was Australia Square (1962–69; Sydney), a cylindrical tower of 50 stories. At the time, this was the tallest concrete structure in the world. In 1957 and 1958–59, for the 1960 Rome Olympic Games, Nervi designed two sport palaces.

His first building in the United States was commissioned by the Port of New York Authority: the George Washington Bridge Bus Terminal, in Manhattan, built in 1961–62. Subsequently he designed a precast, vaulted field house for Dartmouth College in New Hampshire (1961–62) and, in collaboration with Pietro Belluschi, the Cathedral of San Francisco, four vertical-warped surfaces dramatically enclosing the vertical space of the main nave. In 1961 Harvard University appointed Nervi to the Charles Eliot Norton Chair of Poetry and in 1963 awarded him an honorary degree; he later received the Gold Medal from the American Institute of Architects in recognition of his work.

After years of intense practice in Italy and abroad, Nervi reduced his activities as a builder in the late 1960s. Assisted by two of his sons, Antonio, a structural engineer, and Mario, an architect, he began to confine his activities largely to designs. An increasing number of his projects now were done in association with foreign architects.

Although Nervi’s primary concern was never aesthetic, many of his works, nonetheless, reached the realm of poetry. His buildings achieved remarkable expressive force, as in the geometry of the slabs in the Gatti wool factory (1953), in Rome, and the mezzanine of the Palace of Labour, in Turin. Through his use of interpenetrating planes, of folded and bent plates, and of warping surfaces, Nervi introduced a new three-dimensional vocabulary into architectural design. He reminded architects that “materials, statics, the technology of construction, economic efficiency and functional needs are the vocabulary of the architectural speech.”

Nervi’s contribution has been compared to that of another builder whose work revolutionized architecture—Joseph Paxton, who built the Crystal Palace for the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London. In both instances, highly rational and innovative structures resulted from a continuous process of devoted search and development, with an emphasis on modular construction, prefabrication, and extreme physical and visual lightness.

Eduardo F. Catalano, Jr.




Craig Ellwood.


Craig Ellwood

Craig Ellwood (April 22, 1922 – May 30, 1992) was an influential Los Angeles-based modernist architect whose career spanned the early 1950s through the mid-1970s. Although untrained as an architect, Ellwood fashioned a persona and career through equal parts of a talent for good design, self-promotion and ambition. He was recognized professionally for fusing of the formalism of Mies van der Rohe with the informal style of California modernism.

Ellwood was born Jon Nelson Burke in Clarendon, Texas. Along with many others in the 1920s, Ellwood's family moved west, following U.S. Route 66, finally settling in Los Angeles in 1937. There, Ellwood, as Johnnie Burke, attended Belmont High School, where he was class president before graduating in 1940. In 1942, Ellwood and his brother Cleve both joined the U.S. Army Air Corps. Ellwood served as a B-24 radio operator, based with Cleve in Victorville, California until his discharge in 1946.

After his discharge, Burke returned to Los Angeles and set up a company with his brother Cleve and two friends from the war, the Marzicola brothers, one of whom had a contractor's license. The four men called their firm 'Craig Ellwood' after a liquor store called Lords and Elwood located in front of their offices. Burke later legally changed his name to Ellwood. In 1948, he joined the firm Lamport Cofer Salzman (L.C.S.) as a construction cost estimator, having acquired this skill during his work for the Craig Ellwood Company. Ellwood also studied structural engineering through UCLA extension night school for five years. He became increasingly involved in design and architecture, resulting in Ellwood's first commissions, all for residences.

Ellwood established 'Craig Ellwood Design' in 1951. There Ellwood would provide the commissions and the vision, and it was up to USC-trained architect Robert Theron 'Pete' Peters, and later others, to provide the technical realization, drawings and the required sign-off of a licensed architect. Early projects included Case Study House 16 in 1952. The designs were well received by both the trade and potential clients, often receiving favorable coverage in influential publications like John Entenza's Arts & Architecture, often arranged for by Ellwood personally. Thus the firm received a growing stream of both residential and commercial commissions, and Ellwood's style matured to fully embrace the concepts put forth by International Style architects, particularly Mies van der Rohe.

By the late-1950s, though not a licensed architect, Ellwood was nonetheless a sought-after university lecturer, eventually giving a series of talks at Yale University, and teaching at the University of Southern California and California State Polytechnic University, Pomona's Department of Architecture.

Though Ellwood's office expanded with the size and number of his commissions, it was never a particularly profitable enterprise. It continued through the mid-1970s, with several notable projects, including the master plan for the Rand Corporation's headquarters in Santa Monica, California, a number of Xerox and IBM offices, and the trademark "bridge building" dramatically spanning an arroyo and roadway at Art Center College of Design in Pasadena. As published in the 1976, the Art Center building is recognized as the work of Craig Ellwood Associates, with James Tyler as design architect and Stephen Woolley as project architect. Some sources have sought to re-credit this building solely to Tyler, who had worked for John Sugden (a former associate of Mies) and was the architect of the Art Center addition, completed in 1991. The practice closed in 1977 and Ellwood retired to Italy to focus on painting and restoring a farm house near Ambra, Italy. Ellwood died of a heart attack in 1992 in Pergine Valdarno, Italy.



Craig Ellwood.
Rosen  House, Los Angeles, California, 1961-1963

Craig Ellwood.
Beverly Glen Blvd, Los Angeles

Craig Ellwood.
Case Study House 16

Craig Ellwood.
Case Study House 18 in Los Angeles, California, 1956-1958

Case Study House, perspective draving



Pietro Belluschi.


Pietro Belluschi

Pietro Belluschi, (born Aug. 18, 1899, Ancona, Italy—died Feb. 14, 1994, Portland, Ore., U.S.), Modernist architect identified first with regional architecture of the American Northwest, from which his influence spread throughout the world. He was noted for his use of indigenous materials, especially woods for residential buildings and aluminum for tall office buildings, following his own dictum of “eloquent simplicity.”

Graduating in 1922 as a civil engineer from the University of Rome, Belluschi went to the United States on a scholarship and continued civil engineering studies at Cornell University. He practiced architecture until 1950, and the following year he became dean of the School of Architecture and Planning at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. After retirement in 1965 he continued to lecture and served as adviser to the U.S. State Department in South Korea and the Philippines. Belluschi participated in the design of more than 1,000 buildings. Among his works in Portland, Ore., are the Sutor House (1938), the Equitable Building (1948), considered to be the first glass curtain-wall structure in the United States, and Zion Lutheran Church (1950). His other well-known buildings (some in association with other architects) include the Portland Art Museum (1931); the Boston and Keystone buildings, Boston; the Bank of America World Headquarters, San Francisco (1969); and the Juilliard School, Lincoln Center, New York City (1969). In 1972 he received the Gold Medal of the American Institute of Architects.

Encyclopædia Britannica


Pietro Belluschi.
Equitable Savings and Loan Association Building, Portland, Oregen, 1945-1948


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