Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES

 

 
 

 
 

CHAPTER THREE
 

TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE
 

Part I. ARCHITECTURE - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
Part II. ARCHITECTURE - 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20,
Part III. ARCHITECTURE - 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29
 

 


ARCHITECTURE
 

High Modernism

Following the rise of the Nazis, the best German architects, whose work Hitler condemned as "un-German," came to the United States and greatly stimulated the development of American architecture. Gropius, who was appointed chairman of the architecture department at Harvard University, had an important educational influence. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, his former colleague at Dessau, settled in Chicago as a practicing architect. Following the war, they were to realize the dream of modern architecture, contained in germinal form in their buildings of the 1930s but never fully implemented. We may call the style that dominated architecture for 25 years after World War II "High Modernism," for it was indeed the culmination of the developments that had taken place during the first half of the twentieth century. High Modernism was never monolithic even at its zenith. Yet its unified spaces, be they geometric or organic, embodied a harmonious vision that developed in a consistent way as the style was disseminated in countless buildings throughout the world. Like the International Style before it, High Modernism permitted considerable local variation within established guidelines, although the process of elaboration led almost inevitably to its dissolution.

 


KAHN.

Le Corbusier belongs to the same heroic generation as Gropius and Mies van der Rohe: all were born in the 1880s.


It was these giants who in the course of their long, fruitful careers coined the language of twentieth-century architecture. Their successors continued to use many aspects of its vocabulary in new building types and materials. Nor did they forget its fundamental logic.

Louis Kahn (1901 -1974) used bare concrete to great effect in the Jonas Salk Institute of Biological Studies in La Jolla (fig. 1201). Salk, inventor of the first polio vaccine, had been deeply impressed by his visit to Assisi and conceived of the center as analogous to the Franciscan monastery there. Kahn, who was in complete sympathy with his patron's views, carried out this scheme brilliantly. He treated the offices as a series of monastic cells attached to the central work spaces formed by the laboratoriesor, as he put it, servant and server spaces. Like so many others, the ambitious project proved too costly (it included, among other things, separate living quarters for the scientists and their families) and was halted before it could be completed. It nevertheless remains the fullest statement of Kahn's principles.



Louis I. Kahn. Jonas Salk Institute, Lajolla, California. 1959-65




1201. LOUIS KAHN. Jonas Salk Institute of Biological Studies,
Lajolla, California.
1959-65




Louis I. Kahn. Jonas Salk Institute, Lajolla, California. 1959-65





Louis I. Kahn. Jonas Salk Institute, Lajolla, California. 1959-65




Louis I. Kahn. Jonas Salk Institute, Lajolla, California. 1959-65




Louis I. Kahn. Jonas Salk Institute, Lajolla, California. 1959-65




Louis I. Kahn. Jonas Salk Institute, Lajolla, California. 1959-65
 

 



Louis I. Kahn

Louis I. Kahn, in full Louis Isadore Kahn (born Feb. 20, 1901, Osel, Estonia, Russian Empire—died March 17, 1974, New York, N.Y., U.S.), American architect whose buildings, characterized by powerful, massive forms, made him one of the most discussed architects to emerge after World War II.

Kahn’s parents immigrated to the United States when he was a child. He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, in 1924 and later toured Europe, studying and sketching architectural monuments. In 1941 he was in partnership with George Howe and from 1942 to 1944 with Howe and Oscar Stonorov.

Kahn designed private residences and worker housing in the 1930s and ’40s. He became a professor of architecture at Yale University in 1947. After a fellowship at the American Academy in Rome (1950), which deepened his appreciation of Mediterranean architecture, Kahn carried out his first important work: the Yale University Art Gallery (1952–54) at New Haven, Conn., which marked a notable departure from his International Style buildings of the previous decade.

In 1957 Kahn was named professor of architecture at the University of Pennsylvania. His Richards Medical Research Building (1960–65) at the university is outstanding for its expression of the distinction between “servant” and “served” spaces. The servant spaces (stairwells, elevators, exhaust and intake vents, and pipes) are isolated in four towers, distinct from the served spaces (laboratories and offices). Laboratory buildings had been designed this way for decades; Kahn elevated this practical feature into an architectural principle. His mature style, best exemplified by the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, Calif. (1959–65), and the Yale Center for British Art, New Haven (1977), combined the servant-served typology with inspiration from classical and medieval architecture, basic geometric forms, and an elegant, expressive use of such familiar materials as concrete and brick.

Kahn’s work, like that of Eero Saarinen, Frei Otto, and others who broke with the International Style, was controversial during his lifetime. However, his work was reviewed more favourably by a new generation of critics, who declared him one of the most original and important architects of the 20th century.

The Louis I. Kahn Archive, 7 vol. (1987), contains drawings, sketches, and blueprints. Collections of published and previously unpublished writings and lectures are What Will Be Has Always Been (1986), edited by Richard Saul Wurman, and Louis I. Kahn (1991), edited by Alessandra Latour.

Encyclopædia Britannica
 

 




Louis I. Kahn. The National Assembly Building (Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban) of Bangladesh




Louis I. Kahn. National Parliament of Bangladesh at night

Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban (National Assembly Building) in Dhaka, Bangladesh is perhaps the most important masterpiece designed by Louis Kahn. Kahn got the design contract with the help of Muzharul Islam, his student at Yale, who worked with him on the project. It was Kahn's last work during 1962 to 1974. It is the centerpiece of the national capital complex designed by Kahn that includes hostels, dining halls and a hospital. According to Robert McCarter, author of Louis I. Kahn, it "is one of the twentieth century's greatest architectural monuments, and is without question Kahn's magnum opus
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