Dictionary of Art and Artists



History of

Architecture and Sculpture


















ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
11, 12, 13,14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26



Gianlorenzo Bernini.

We have already encountered Gianlorenzo Bernini as an architect. It is now time to consider him as a sculptor, although the two aspects are never far apart in his work. As in the tabernacle for St. Peter's (see fig. 755), a strong relationship can often be discovered between Bernini's and Hellenistic sculpture. If we compare Bernini's David (fig. 767) with Michelangelo's (see fig. 645) and ask which is closer to the Pergamum frieze or The Laocoon Group (see figs. 215 and 217), our vote must go to Bernini. His figure shares with Hellenistic works that unison of body and spirit, of motion and emotion, which Michelangelo so conspicuously avoids. This does not mean that Bernini is more classical than Michelangelo. It indicates, rather, that both the Baroque and the High Renaissance acknowledged the authority of ancient art, but each period drew inspiration from a different aspect of antiquity.

Bernini's David, obviously, is in no sense an echo of The Laocoon Group. What makes it Baroque is the implied presence of Goliath. Unlike earlier statues of David, Bernini's is conceived not as one self-contained figure but as half of a pair, his entire action focused on his adversary. Did Bernini, we wonder, plan a statue of Goliath to complete the group? He never did, for his David tells us clearly enough where he sees the enemy. Consequently, the space between David and his invisible opponent is charged with energyóit "belongs" to the statue.

Bernini's David shows us what distinguishes Baroque sculpture from the sculpture of the two preceding centuries: its new, active relationship with the space it inhabits. It rejects self-sufficiency for the illusion of presences or forces that are implied by the behavior of the statue. Because it so often presents an "invisible complement" (like the Goliath of Bernini's David), Baroque sculpture is a tour de force, attempting essentially pictorial effects that were traditionally outside its province. Such a charging of space with active energy is, in fact, a key feature of all Baroque art. Caravaggio had achieved it in his St. Matthew, with the aid of a sharply focused beam of light. Indeed, Baroque art acknowledges no sharp distinction between sculpture and painting. And as we have seen, the two may even be combined with architecture to form a compound illusion, like that of the stage.

767. Gianlorenzo Bernini. David. 1623. Marble, lifesize. Galleria Borghese, Rome

In fact, Bernini, who had a passionate interest in the theater, was at his best when he could merge architecture, sculpture, and painting in this fashion. His masterpiece in this vein is the Cornaro Chapel in the church of Sta. Maria della Vittoria, containing the famous group called The Ecstasy of St. Theresa (fig. 768). Theresa of Avila, one of the great saints of the Counter Reformation, had described how an angel pierced her heart with a flaming golden arrow: "The pain was so great that I screamed aloud; but at the same time I felt such infinite sweetness that I wished the pain to last forever. It was not physical but psychic pain, although it affected the body as well to some degree. It was the sweetest caressing of the soul by God."

Bernini has made this visionary experience as sensuously real as Correggio's Jupiter and Io (see fig.
693). In a different context, the angel would be indistinguishable from Cupid, and the saint's ecstasy is palpable. The two figures on their floating cloud are illuminated (from a hidden window above) in such a way as to seem almost dematerialized in their gleaming whiteness. The beholder experiences them as visionary. The "invisible complement" here, less specific than David's but equally important, is the force that carries the figures heavenward, causing the turbulence of their drapery. Its divine nature is suggested by the golden rays, which come from a source high above the altar. In an illusionistic fresco by Guide-baldo Abbatini on the vault of the chapel, the glory of the heavens is revealed as a dazzling burst of light from which tumble clouds of jubilant angels (fig. 769). This celestial "explosion" gives force to the thrusts of the angel's arrow and makes the ecstasy of the saint believable.

768. Gianlorenzo Bernini. The Ecstasy of St. Theresa. 1645-52. Marble, lifesize.
Cornaro Chapel, Sta. Maria della Vittoria, Rome

Gianlorenzo Bernini. The Ecstasy of Saint Therese (details)
Marble, height 350 cm
Cappella Cornaro, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome

769. The Cornaro Chapel. 18th-century painting.
Staatliches Museum, Schwerin, Germany

To complete the illusion, Bernini even provides a built-in audience for his "stage." On the sides of the chapel are balconies resembling theater boxes, where we see marble figures, depicting members of the Cornaro family, who also witness the ecstasy. Their space and ours are the same and thus part of everyday reality, while the ecstasy, housed in a strongly framed niche, occupies a space that is real but beyond our reach. Finally, the ceiling fresco represents the infinite, unfathomable space of Heaven. We may recall that The Burial of Count Orgaz and its setting also form a whole embracing three levels of reality. There is nevertheless a profound difference between the two chapels. El Greco's Mannerism evokes an ethereal vision in which only the stone slab of the sarcophagus is "real," in contrast to Bernini's Baroque theatricality, where the distinction nearly breaks down altogether. It would be all too easy to dismiss The Ecstasy of St. Theresa as a superficial, melodramatic display, but Bernini also was a devout Catholic who believed (as did Michelangelo) that he received his inspiration directly from God. Like the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius, which he practiced, his religious sculpture is intended to help the viewer achieve complete identification with miraculous events through a vivid appeal to the senses.

Bernini was steeped in Renaissance humanism and theory. Central to his sculpture is the role played by gesture and expression in arousing emotion. While no less important to the Renaissance (compare Leonardo), these devices have an apparent abandon that seems anticlassical in Bernini's hands. However, he essentially adhered to the Renaissance concept of decorum and calculated his effects very carefully, varying them in accordance with his subject. Unlike the Frenchman Nicolas Poussin (whom he admired), Bernini did this for the sake of expressive impact rather than conceptual clarity. Their approaches were diametrically opposed as well. For Bernini, antique art served as no more than a point of departure for his own fertile inventiveness, whereas for classicists like Poussin it provided a reference point that acted as a standard of comparison. It is nevertheless characteristic of the paradoxical Baroque that Bernini's theories should be far more orthodox than his art, and that he sometimes sided with the classicists against his fellow High Baroque artists, perhaps out of professional rivalry, despite the fact that his sculpture has much in common with the paintings of Pietro da Cortona.


Gian Lorenzo Bernini

Gian Lorenzo Bernini, (born Dec. 7, 1598, Naples, Kingdom of Naples [Italy]ódied Nov. 28, 1680, Rome, Papal States), Italian artist who was perhaps the greatest sculptor of the 17th century and an outstanding architect as well. Bernini created the Baroque style of sculpture and developed it to such an extent that other artists are of only minor importance in a discussion of that style.

Early years
Berniniís career began under his father, Pietro Bernini, a Florentine sculptor of some talent who ultimately moved to Rome. The young prodigy worked so diligently that he earned the praise of the painter Annibale Carracci and the patronage of Pope Paul V and soon established himself as a wholly independent sculptor. He was strongly influenced by his close study of the antique Greek and Roman marbles in the Vatican, and he also had an intimate knowledge of High Renaissance painting of the early 16th century. His study of Michelangelo is revealed in the St. Sebastian (c. 1617), carved for Maffeo Cardinal Barberini, who was later Pope Urban VIII and Berniniís greatest patron.

Berniniís early works attracted the attention of Scipione Cardinal Borghese, a member of the reigning papal family. Under his patronage, Bernini carved his first important life-size sculptural groups. The series shows Berniniís progression from the almost haphazard single view of Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius Fleeing Troy (1619) to strong frontality in Pluto and Proserpina (1621Ė22) and then to the hallucinatory vision of Apollo and Daphne (1622Ė24), which was intended to be viewed from one spot as if it were a relief. In his David (1623Ė24), Bernini depicts the figure casting a stone at an unseen adversary. Several portrait busts that Bernini executed during this period, including that of Robert Cardinal Bellarmine (1623Ė24), show a new awareness of the relationship between head and body and display an ability to depict fleeting facial expressions with acute realism. These marble works show an unparalleled virtuosity in carving that obdurate material to achieve the delicate effects usually found only in bronze sculptures. Berniniís sensual awareness of the surface textures of skin and hair and his novel sense of shading broke with the tradition of Michelangelo and marked the emergence of a new period in the history of Western sculpture.

Patronage of Urban VIII
With the pontificate of Urban VIII (1623Ė44), Bernini entered a period of enormous productivity and artistic development. Urban VIII urged his protégé to paint and to practice architecture. His first architectural work was the remodeled Church of Santa Bibiana in Rome. At the same time, Bernini was commissioned to build a symbolic structure over the tomb of St. Peter in St. Peterís Basilica in Rome. The result is the famous immense gilt-bronze baldachin executed between 1624 and 1633. Its twisted columns derive from the early Christian columns that had been used in the altar screen of Old St. Peterís. Berniniís most original contribution to the final work is the upper framework of crowning volutes flanked by four angels that supports the orb and cross. The baldachin is perfectly proportioned to its setting, and one hardly realizes that it is as tall as a four-story building. Its lively outline moving upward to the triumphant crown, its dark colour heightened with burning gold, give it the character of a living organism. An unprecedented fusion of sculpture and architecture, the baldachin is the first truly Baroque monument. It ultimately formed the centre of a programmatic decoration designed by Bernini for the interior of St. Peterís.

Bernini next supervised the decoration of the four piers supporting the dome of St. Peterís with colossal statues, though only one of the latter, St. Longinus, was designed by him. He also made a series of portrait busts of Urban VIII, but the first bust to achieve the quality of his earlier portraits is that of his great patron, Scipione Cardinal Borghese (1632). The cardinal is shown in the act of speaking and moving, and the action is caught at a moment that seems to reveal all the characteristic qualities of the subject.

Berniniís architectural duties increased after the death of Carlo Maderno in 1629, when Bernini became architect of St. Peterís and of the Palazzo Barberini. By this time he was not only executing works himself but also having to rely on assistance from others as the number of his commissions grew. He was successful in organizing his studio and planning his work so that sculptures and ornamentations produced by a team actually seem to be all of a piece. Berniniís work, then and always, was also shaped by his fervent Roman Catholicism (he attended mass every day and took communion twice a week). He would agree with the formulations of the Council of Trent (1545Ė63) that the purpose of religious art was to teach and inspire the faithful and to serve as propaganda for the Roman Catholic Church. Religious art should always be intelligible and realistic, and, above all, it should serve as an emotional stimulus to piety. The development of Berniniís religious art was largely determined by his conscientious efforts to conform to those principles.

Under Urban VIII Bernini began to produce new and different kinds of monumentsótombs and fountains. The tomb of Urban VIII (1628Ė47) shows the pope seated with his arm raised in a commanding gesture, while below him are two white marble figures representing the Virtues. Bernini also designed a revolutionary series of small tomb memorials, of which the most impressive is that of Maria Raggi (1643). But his fountains are his most obvious contribution to the city of Rome. The Triton Fountain in the Piazza Barberini (1642Ė43) is a dramatic transformation of a Roman architectonic fountainóthe superposed basins of the traditional geometric piazza fountain appearing to have come alive. Four dolphins raise a huge shell supporting the sea god, who blows water upward out of a conch.

Berniniís early architectural projects, however, were not invariably successful. In 1637 he began to erect campaniles, or bell towers, over the facade of St. Peterís. But, in 1646, when their weight began to crack the building, they were pulled down, and Bernini was temporarily disgraced.

Patronage of Innocent X and Alexander VII
Berniniís most spectacular public monuments date from the mid-1640s to the 1660s. The Fountain of the Four Rivers in Romeís Piazza Navona (1648Ė51) supports an ancient Egyptian obelisk over a hollowed-out rock, surmounted by four marble figures symbolizing four major rivers of the world. This fountain is one of his most spectacular works.

The greatest single example of Berniniís mature art is the Cornaro Chapel in Santa Maria della Vittoria, in Rome, which completes the evolution begun early in his career. The chapel, commissioned by Federigo Cardinal Cornaro, is in a shallow transept in the small church. Its focal point is his sculpture of The Ecstasy of St. Teresa (1645Ė52), a depiction of a mystical experience of the great Spanish Carmelite reformer Teresa of Ávila. In representing Teresaís vision, during which an angel pierced her heart with a fiery arrow of divine love, Bernini followed Teresaís own description of the event. The sculptured group, showing the transported saint swooning in the void, covered by cascading drapery, is revealed in celestial light within a niche over the altar, where the architectural and decorative elements are richly joined and articulated. At left and right, in spaces resembling opera boxes, numerous members of the Cornaro family are found in spirited postures of conversation, reading, or prayer. The Cornaro Chapel carries Berniniís ideal of a three-dimensional picture to its apex. The figures of St. Teresa and the angel are sculptured in white marble, but the viewer cannot tell whether they are in the round or merely in high relief. The natural daylight that falls on the figures from a hidden source above and behind them is part of the group, as are the gilt rays behind. The Ecstasy of St. Teresa is not sculpture in the conventional sense. Instead, it is a framed pictorial scene made up of sculpture, painting, and light that also includes the worshiper in a religious drama.

In his later years, the growing desire to control the environments of his statuary led Bernini to concentrate more and more on architecture. Of the churches he designed after completing the Cornaro Chapel, the most impressive is that of SantíAndrea al Quirinale (1658Ė70) in Rome, with its dramatic high altar, soaring dome, and unconventionally sited oval plan. But Berniniís greatest architectural achievement is the colonnade enclosing the piazza before St. Peterís Basilica. The chief function of the large space was to hold the crowd that gathered for the papal benediction on Easter and other special occasions. Bernini planned a huge oval attached to the church by a trapezoidal forecourtóforms that he compared to the encircling arms of the mother church. The freestanding colonnades were a novel solution to the need for a penetrable enclosure. The piazza guides the visitor toward the church and counterbalances the overly wide facade of St. Peterís. Berniniís oval encloses a space centred on the Vatican obelisk, which had been moved before the church by Sixtus V in 1586. Bernini moved an older fountain by Maderno into the long axis of the piazza and built a twin on the other side to make a scenographic whole. The analogies to Berniniís oval plan of SantíAndrea al Quirinale are fascinating, as are the differences in meaning and function.

Berniniís most spectacular religious decoration is the Throne of St. Peter, or the Cathedra Petri (1657Ė66), a gilt-bronze cover for the medieval wooden throne (cathedra) of the pope. Berniniís task was not only to make a decorative cover for the chair but also to create a meaningful goal in the apse of St. Peterís for the pilgrimís journey through the great church. The seat is seemingly supported by four imposing bronze figures representing theological doctors of the early church: Saints Ambrose, Athanasius, John Chrysostom, and Augustine. Above, a golden glory of angels on clouds and rays of light emanates from the Dove of the Holy Spirit, which is painted on an oval window. The cathedra was produced about the same time as the piazza, and the contrast between these two works shows Berniniís versatility. Both works were done for the Chigi pope, Alexander VII (1655Ė67), who was one of Berniniís greatest patrons. The tomb that Bernini designed for Alexander VII (1671Ė78) was largely executed by his pupils.

In addition to his large works, Bernini continued to produce a few portrait busts. The first of these, of Francesco I díEste, duke of Modena (1650Ė51), culminates his revolution in portraiture. Much of the freedom and spontaneity of the bust of Cardinal Borghese is kept, but it is united with a heroic pomp and grandiose movement that portray the ideals of the Baroque age as much as the man.

Trip to France
Bernini went to Paris in 1665, in what was his only prolonged absence from Rome. The trip was made in response to invitations that for many years had been extended to him by King Louis XIV, and the purpose was the design of a new French royal residence. By this time, Bernini was so famous that crowds lined the streets of each city along the route to watch him pass. His initial reception in Paris was equally triumphant, but he soon offended his sensitive hosts by imperiously praising the art and architecture of Italy at the expense of that of France. His statements made him unpopular at the French court and were to some degree responsible for the rejection of his designs for the Louvre. The only relic of Berniniís visit to France is his great bust of Louis XIV, a linear, vertical, and stable portrait, in which the Sun King gazes out with godlike authority. The image set a standard for royal portraits that lasted 100 years.

Later years
Berniniís late works in sculpture are inevitably overshadowed by his grandiose projects for St. Peterís, but a few of them are of outstanding interest. For the Chigi Chapel in the Church of Santa Maria del Popolo in Rome, he carved two groups, Daniel in the Lionsí Den and Habakkuk and the Angel (1655Ė61). These works show the beginnings of his late style: elongation of the body, expressive gesture, and simplified yet emphatic emotional expression. The same characteristics are already found in the figures supporting the Throne of St. Peter and culminate in the moving Angels for the SantíAngelo Bridge in Rome, which Bernini redecorated with the help of assistants between 1667 and 1671. Pope Clement IX (1667Ė69) so prized the Angels carved by Bernini that they were never set up on the bridge and are now in the church of SantíAndrea delle Fratte in Rome.

The redecorated SantíAngelo Bridge leading across the Tiber forms an introduction to the Vatican, and Berniniís other worksóthe piazza, Scala Regia, and the baldachin and cathedra within St. Peterísóform progressively more powerful expressions of papal power to support and inspire Roman Catholic pilgrims to the site. Bernini completed one more decoration in St. Peterís in his last years: the altar of the Santissimo Sacramento Chapel (1673Ė74). The pliant, human adoration of the angels contrasts with the timeless architecture of the bronze tabernacle that they flank and typifies Berniniís late style. In his last years he seems to have found the inexorable laws of architecture a consoling antithesis to the transitory human state.

Berniniís greatest late work is the simple Altieri Chapel in San Francesco a Ripa (c. 1674) in Rome. The relatively deep space above the altar reveals a statue representing the death of the Blessed Ludovica Albertoni. Bernini consciously separated architecture, sculpture, and painting for different roles, reversing the process that culminated in the Cornaro Chapel. In that sense, the Altieri Chapel is more traditional, a variation on his church interiors of the preceding years. Instead of filling the arched opening, the sculpted figure of Ludovica lies at the bottom of a large volume of space, and is illuminated by a heavenly light that plays on the drapery gathered over her recumbent figure. Her hands weakly clutching her breast make explicit her painful death.

Bernini died at age 81, after having served eight popes, and when he died he was widely considered not only Europeís greatest artist but also one of its greatest men. He was the last of Italyís remarkable series of universal geniuses, and the Baroque style he helped create was the last Italian style to become an international standard. His death marked the end of Italyís artistic hegemony in Europe. The style he evolved was carried on for two more generations in various parts of Europe by the architects Mattia deí Rossi and Carlo Fontana in Rome, J.B. Fischer von Erlach in Austria, and the brothers Cosmas and Egid Quirin Asam in Bavaria, among others.

Howard Hibbard

Encyclopædia Britannica


Gianlorenzo Bernini. Bacchanal: A Faun Teased by Children
Marble, height 132,1 cm
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Gianlorenzo Bernini. Aeneas, Anchises, and Ascanius
Marble, height: 220 cm
Galleria Borghese, Rome

Gianlorenzo Bernini. Apollo and Daphne
Carrara marble, height 243 cm
Galleria Borghese, Rome

Gianlorenzo Bernini. Apollo and Daphne
Carrara marble
Galleria Borghese, Rome

Gianlorenzo Bernini. The Rape of Proserpina
Marble. height 295 cm
Galleria Borghese, Rome


Gianlorenzo Bernini. The Rape of Proserpina
Marble. height 295 cm
Galleria Borghese, Rome

Gianlorenzo Bernini. The Rape of Proserpina
Marble. height 295 cm
Galleria Borghese, Rome

Gianlorenzo Bernini. The Rape of Proserpina (detail)
Galleria Borghese, Rome


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