Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 

 

 
 

CHAPTER THREE
 

THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
 

Leonardo da Vinci
Donato Bramante
Michelangelo
Raphael, Giorgione, Titian
Andrea Sansovino
Giovanni della Robbia
Baldassarre Peruzzi
 
 


Donato Bramante.
 

THE TEMPIETTO. The new style is shown fully formed in Bramante's Tempietto at S. Pietro in Montorio (figs. 640 and 641), designed soon after 1500. This chapel, which marks the site of St. Peter's crucifixion, was planned to be surrounded by a circular, colonnaded courtyard. The Tempietto would then have appeared less isolated from its environment than it does today, for Bramante intended it to be set within a "molded" exterior space, a conception as bold and novel as the design of the chapel itself. Its nickname, "little temple," is well deserved. In the three-step platform and the severe Doric order of the colonnade, Classical temple architecture is more directly recalled than in any fifteenth-century structure. Equally striking is Bramante's application of the "sculptured wall" in the Tempietto itself and the courtyard. Not since Brunelleschi's Sta. Maria degli Angeli have we seen such deeply recessed niches "excavated" from heavy masses of masonry. These cavities are counterbalanced by the convex shape of the dome and by strongly projecting moldings and cornices. As a result, the Tempietto has a monumentality that belies its modest size.
 


640. Donato Bramante. The Tempietto, S. Pietro in Montorio, Rome. 1502-11



641. Plan of the Tempietto
(after Serlio,
in Regole generali di Architettura).
Gray indicates unbuilt sections

 

   


Donato Bramante. Study. Drawing. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence


Cupola progettata da Donato Bramante per la Basilica di San Pietro

ST. PETER'S, ROME. The Tempietto is the earliest of the great achievements that made Rome the center of Italian art during the first quarter of the sixteenth century. Most of them belong to the decade 1503-13, the papacy of Julius IT. It was he who decided to replace the old basilica of St. Peter's, which had been in precarious condition, with a church so magnificent as to overshadow all the monuments of ancient Imperial Rome. The task fell to Bramante, the foremost architect in the city. His original design of 1506 is known only from a plan (fig. 642) and from the medal commemorating the start of the building campaign (fig. 643), which shows the exterior in rather imprecise perspective. These are sufficient, however, to bear out the words Bramante reportedly used to define his aim: "I shall place the Pantheon on top of the Basilica of Constantine."

To surpass the two most famous structures of Roman antiquity by a Christian edifice of unexampled grandeurnothing less would have satisfied Julius II, a pontiff of enormous ambition, who wanted to unite all Italy under his command and thus to gain a temporal power matching the spiritual authority of his office. Bramante's design is indeed of truly imperial magnificence. A huge dome, hemispherical like that of the Tempietto, crowns the crossing of the barrel-vaulted arms of a Greek cross, with four lesser domes and tall corner towers filling the angles. This plan fulfills all the demands laid down by Alberti for sacred architecture. Based entirely on the circle and the square, it is so rigidly symmetrical that we cannot tell which apse was to hold the high altar. Bramante envisioned four identical facades like that on the medal of 1506, dominated by the same repertory of severely classical forms we saw in the Tempietto: domes, half-domes, colonnades, pediments.

These simple geometric shapes, however, do not prevail inside the church. Here the sculptured wall reigns supreme. The plan shows no continuous surfaces, only great, oddly shaped "islands" of masonry that have been well described by one critic as giant pieces of toast half-eaten by a voracious space. The actual size of these islands can be visualized only if we compare the measurements of Bramante,s church with those of earlier buildings. S. Lorenzo in Florence, for instance, has a length of 268 feet, less than half that of the new St. Peter's (550 feet). Figure 644, which reproduces the plan of S. Lorenzo on the same scale as Bramante's plan (fig. 642), proves that Bramante's reference to the Pantheon and the Basilica of Constantine was no idle boast. His plan dwarfs these monuments, as well as every Early Renaissance church. (Each arm of the Greek cross has about the same dimensions as the Basilica of Constantine.)

How did he propose to build a structure of such overwhelming size? Cut stone and brick, the materials favored by medieval architects, would not do, for technical and economic reasons. Only construction in concrete, as used by the Romans but largely forgotten during the Middle Ages, was strong and cheap enough to till Bramante's needs. By reviving this ancient technique, he opened a new era in the history of architecture, for concrete permitted designs of far greater flexibility than the building methods of the medieval masons. The possibilities of the material, however, were not fully exploited for some time to come. The construction of St. Peter's progressed so slowly that in 1514, when Bramante died, only the four crossing piers had actually been built. For the next three decades the campaign was carried on hesitantly by architects trained under Bramante, who modified his design in a number of ways. A new and decisive phase in the history of St. Peter's began only in 1546, when Michelangelo took charge, and the present appearance of the church (fig. 660) is largely shaped by his ideas. But this must be considered in the context of Michelangelo's career as a whole.


642. Bramante. Original plan for St. Peter's, Rome. 1506 (after Gevmuller)

643. CARADOSSO. Bronze medal showing Bramante's design for St. Peter's. 1506. British Museum, London

644. Plan of BRUNELLESCHl's S. Lorenzo, Florence, reproduced at the same scale as figure 642

 


Donato Bramante.



born 1444, probably at Monte Asdruvaldo, Duchy of Urbino
died April 11, 1514, Rome


Donato also spelled Donino , or Donnino architect who introduced theHigh Renaissance style in architecture. His early works in Milan included the rectory of S. Ambrogio and the church of Sta. Maria delle Grazie. In Rome, Bramante served asprincipal planner of Pope Julius II's comprehensive project for rebuilding the city. St. Peter's Basilica, of which he was the chief architect, was begun in 1506. Other major Roman works were the Tempietto at S. Pietro in Montorio (1502) and the Belvedere court in the Vatican (begun c. 1505).
Early years and training

Donato Bramante was born of a family of well-to-do peasants. In his childhood, says the 16th-century biographer and artist Giorgio Vasari, “besides reading and writing, he practiced much at the abacus.” His father probably directed him toward painting.

Little is known of Bramante's life and works before 1477. Heprobably served as an assistant to Piero della Francesca in Urbino, which under the nobleman Federico da Montefeltro (died 1482) had become a Humanist centre of considerable importance. In 1477 Bramante was working in Bergamo as a painter of illusionistic murals of architecture. He probably derived his training not only from the works of artists active in Urbino but also from those of other artists he may have observed in his travels, such as those of Leon Battista Alberti (in Rimini and Mantua), Andrea Mantegna (in Mantua and Padua), Ercole de'Roberti (in Ferrara), and Filippo Brunelleschi (in Florence).

None of Bramante's youthful productions has survived, though some historians attribute various architectural perspectives to him. Almost all of them show some characteristics of Bramante's work, but they appear very different from each other. Before 1477, Bramante may have been primarily a planner, designer, and painter of architectural perspectives that other artists partly modified and inserted into their own paintings or carried out in construction; there are a number of later instances in which he is known to have furnished painters with such architectural perspectives.


Lombard period

By 1477 Bramante had left Urbino for unknown reasons andhad settled in the northern Italian province of Lombardy. He worked on frescoes for the facade of the Palazzo del Podestà(later altered) in Bergamo showing classical figures of philosophers in a complex architectural setting. Vasari (though poorly informed on this period) says that Bramante, after working in various cities on “things of no great cost and little value,” went to Milan “to see the cathedral.” The cathedral workshop, in which Italian, German, and French craftsmen worked by turns, constituted an important centre for the exchange of knowledge, planningmethods, and techniques. Moreover, Milan was a large and wealthy metropolis, the capital of a state ruled by Ludovico Sforza, called Il Moro, and Renaissance architecture was a commodity to be imported. Thus the city represented an opportunity for a young and up-to-date architect like Bramante.

The first architectural work that can be definitely attributed to Bramante is a design: a print made in 1481 by a Milanese engraver, Bernardo Prevedari, from a Bramante drawing representing a ruined temple with human figures. About the same time, Bramante was working on the church of Sta. Maria presso S. Satiro, the first structure definitely attributed to him. Along with a certain adherence to local taste, this church shows traces of the influence of Alberti, Mantegna, Brunelleschi, and the Urbino school. This last influence is particularly evident in its choir, which was painted in perspective to give an illusion of a much larger space. Perhaps from the same period (c. 1480–85) is Bramante's decoration of a room in Casa Panigarola in Milan (fragments in the Brera, Milan) that consists of architectural settings and the figures of men at arms rendered by means of illusionistic perspective. Similar experiments, perhaps also in the same years, seem to have been carried out by Bramante on the facades of buildings, such as Casa Fontana, later called Silvestri, in Milan.

In 1488 Bramante, along with a number of other architects, was asked by Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, brother of Ludovico Sforza and bishop of Pavia, to draw up a new plan for the cathedral of Pavia. Bramante went many times to that city during this period, and it was probably under his direction that the crypt and the lower portion of the building were executed.

Bramante appears to have had close relations with Leonardo da Vinci. In 1482 Leonardo had visited Milan from Florence, and in 1490 both Bramante and Leonardo were occupied with stylistic and structural problems of the tiburio,or crossing tower, of the cathedral of Milan. From 1487 to 1490 a number of mutual exchanges can be documented. The only written evidence of Bramante's ideas on architecture goes back to this time (1490) and consists of a report on the tiburio problem. Bramante examined various solutions (among them one of his own, a square plan), demonstrating a conception of architecture remarkably like that of Alberti.

Bramante by now enjoyed the favour of both Ludovico and Ascanio Sforza, as well as that of influential courtiers. His modest salary and the irregularity of payment, however, did not allow him to live luxuriously. He came in contact not onlywith artists but also with Humanists and poets of the Sforza court, and he himself wrote verses. Like Leonardo, he was involved in the staging of spectacles at the Sforza court, such as one on the occasion of a baptism in 1492.

Architecture increasingly dominated his interests, but he did not give up painting. Of the many works attributed to him by various 16th-century writers, however, none seems to have been preserved. The only extant easel picture that has ever been attributed to him is the “Christ at the Column” (“Cristo alla colonna”) of the Abbey of Chiaravalle (c. 1490, now in the Brera, Milan). A fresco in a complex architectural setting (c. 1490–92) in the Castello Sforzesco in Milan is probably his, with the collaboration of his pupil Il Bramantino.

Starting in 1492, Bramante was entrusted by Ludovico and Ascanio Sforza with the reconstruction of the canonica (rectory) of S. Ambrogio in Milan. The work was interrupted by the fall of Ludovico, and, though it was resumed in the 16th century, only one side of the building was executed. Though Bramante's responsibility cannot be proved, the idea for the new tribuna (chancel) for Sta. Maria delle Grazie probably originated with him; destined to be the burial mausoleum of the Sforzas, the tribuna was in an overall project of reconstruction, begun in 1492, for the entire church. Bramante also may have planned the painted decoration of the interior, but the execution and the clarification of details, particularly on the exterior, were probably done by Lombard masters.

Bramante's activities in the 1490s, before he left Milan finally for Rome, are sporadically documented. It has been conjectured that in the summer of 1492 he was in Florence studying the work of Brunelleschi, in view of the emphatic Brunelleschian character of the S. Ambrogio canonica. In 1493 he made a report on certain fortifications on the Swiss border for Ludovico.

His last few years in Lombardy were marked by the restless activity that characterized the remainder of his career. He was probably responsible for the designs of the piazza of Vigevano (carried out between 1492 and 1494, partly transformed in the late 17th century), of the painted architectural decoration on the arcaded facades that markedits limits, and for the designs of other structures of the Vigevano complex, as well as the painted decoration (which has disappeared) for the interior of the castle of the same city. His covered passageway (ponticella) for the Castello Sforzesco in Milan must also be from this period, and the facade of the church of Sta. Maria Nascente ad Abbiategrasso (near Milan) dates from 1497. Between 1497 and 1498, in addition to a chapel (later altered) of S. Ambrogio in Milan, he worked on the Cistercian Monastery being erected in Milan under the auspices of Ascanio Sforza; like his work on the canonica, it was suspended in 1499 and is unfinished.

Endowed with an extremely receptive character, Bramante was by no means immune to the influence of other artists active in Milan. He was also influenced by his study of Lombard monuments dating from the late ancient and Carolingian periods, the memory of which was to be useful tohim in Rome. Conversely, Bramante's presence (together with Leonardo's) in Milan was of fundamental importance for the later artistic developments in that city.


Roman period

Bramante probably remained in Milan until Ludovico was forced to flee before the city was occupied by the French in September 1499. Bramante appears to have been active from the first in Rome on a variety of projects, such as a painting (now lost) at S. Giovanni in Laterano celebrating the Holy Year 1500. As under-architect of Pope Alexander VI, he probably executed the fountains in Piazza Sta. Maria in Trastevere and in St. Peter's Square (later altered) and served on several architectural councils. It is probable that inthese years he had reduced his activity as a designer and was devoting himself to the study of the ancient monumentsin and around Rome, even ranging as far south as Naples. In the meantime, he had come in contact with Oliviero Carafa, the wealthy and politically influential cardinal of Naples, whohad a deep interest in letters, the arts, and antiquity. Carafa commissioned the first work in Rome known to be by Bramante: the monastery and cloister of Sta. Maria della Pace (finished 1504). Bramante seems to have been engaged in 1502 to begin the small church known as the Tempietto in S. Pietro in Montorio, on the site where St. Peter was said to have been crucified.

The election of Pope Julius II in October 1503 began a new phase in Bramante's work—the grand, or mature, manner. Almost immediately he entered the service of the new pope, one of the greatest patrons in art history. Bramante became the interpreter, in architecture and city planning, of the pontiff's dream of re-creating the ancient empire of the Caesars (renovatio imperii). Bramante planned gigantic building complexes that adhered as never before to the idiom of antiquity. At the same time, the buildings often represented an unbiased, personal, and contemporary interpretation of that idiom.

Perhaps as early as 1505, Bramante designed the immensecourtyard of the Belvedere, extending the nucleus of the older Vatican palaces to the north and connecting them with the pre-existing villa of Innocent VIII. Though the work was carried forward with great speed, the scale was so large that on the death of Julius II, in 1513, and of Bramante himself, in 1514, it was still far from completion. The project, which continued throughout the 16th century and later, suffered so many changes that today Bramante's concept is almost unrecognizable.

Beginning in 1505, at first in competition with two other architects, Giuliano da Sangallo and Fra Giocondo, Bramante planned the new Basilica of St. Peter in Rome—his greatest work and one of the most ambitious building projects up to that date in the history of mankind. The first stone was placed on April 18, 1506 (after Bramante's first plan had been rejected by the Pope, according to a contemporary). The project's site had to be cleared first of the old, crumbling Basilica of Constantine. Bramante's part in its demolition earned him the nicknames of “Maestro Ruinante” or “Maestro Guastante”—“Master Wrecker” or “Master Breaker.” At the time of his death the new construction had scarcely begun totake shape.

Named general superintendent of all papal construction, a well-paid office, Bramante was not only the Pope's principal architect and the engineer at the service of his military entprises but also his personal friend. Concurrent with his work on the Belvedere and St. Peter's, Bramante presented Julius with a highly ambitious plan for the complete remodelling of the Vatican palaces, which was, however, set aside.

Despite the grandiose scale of the St. Peter's undertaking, Bramante continued to work on lesser projects. Between 1505 and 1509 he carried out an enlargement of the choir of the church of Sta. Maria del Popolo, some construction work in Castel Sant'Angelo, and a remodelling of the Rocca di Viterbo. In addition, in 1506, as a military engineer, he accompanied the Pope to Bologna (where the grand staircase of the Palazzo degli Anziani has been attributed to him).

About 1508, when Julius II's new city plan for Rome began to be put into effect, Bramante played an important role as architect and town planner. Within the framework of an organic plan, the Via Giulia (from the Ponte Sisto to the Vatican) was laid out with a large piazza that was to constitute a centre of activity for the city government; the Via della Lungara (from the Vatican across Trastevere to the river port installations of Ripa Grande) was begun; the Via dei Banchi, on which were erected the offices of the most important banks of the time, was widened at the entrance of the Ponte Sant'Angelo; and several streets in the old structure of the medieval city were modified. On the Via Giulia, Bramante designed a huge new Palazzo dei Tribunali (1508), incorporating the church of S. Biagio (1509, also by Bramante). The structure is notable as a model for 16th-century architecture.

Within the framework of Bramante's overall plan, the basin of the port was dug out, and a marine fortress was built at Civitavecchia. The west facade of the Vatican Palace (now the side of the S. Damaso courtyard) was also constructed according to his design, though it was later taken up and completed by Raphael. Around the year 1509, Bramante probably furnished a plan for the church of Roccaverano, whose facade anticipates certain solutions of the late 16th-century architect Andrea Palladio.

Another noteworthy design was that of the Palazzo Caprini (House of Raphael; later destroyed) in the Borgo, which became the model for many 16th-century palaces. This palazzo was later acquired by Raphael. According to Vasari, Bramante, around 1509, had designed the architectural background for the “School of Athens” by Raphael (1508–11;Vatican, Rome), and in return, Raphael represented Bramante in the fresco in the guise of Euclid.

After the death of Julius II, Bramante, though elderly and perhaps in declining health, remained in favour under Pope Leo X. According to a late and uncertain source, in 1513 he presented to Leo X an audacious water-control plan for the city, designed to avoid the periodic floodings of the Tiber. At the end of 1513, however, when consulted about the cathedral of Foligno (S. Feliciano), he was too ill to accept thecommission and died the following year. He was buried in St. Peter's, carried there, according to Vasari, “by the papal court and by all the sculptors, architects, and painters.”


Personality and interests

Even though he was called unlettered (as were Leonardo, Julius II, and others), probably because he was ignorant of Latin and Greek, Bramante must have acquired considerable learning, however fragmentary. His contemporaries esteemed him not only as an architect and painter and for his knowledge of perspective but also as a poet and an amateur musician. He had an almost fanatical interest in Dante. He also wrote some 20 sonnets on amorous, humorous, and religious themes, and, though somewhat crude in style, they are full of spirit.

His theoretical writings, apart from his report on the tiburio of the Milan cathedral, have all been lost, but their subjects are indicative of his interests; e.g., works on perspective, on the “German manner” (i.e., on Gothic architecture), on fortification methods, and others.

Bramante seems to have been an extrovert. He was said to be very friendly to persons with talent, and he did much to help them. Humour, irony, a taste for intelligent jokes, and mockery of himself as well as others often appear in his sonnets. Full of faith in himself, he was an irreverent person who took pleasure in proposing paradoxical ideas. He was critical of priests and courtiers but also capable of deep religious feeling. In the treacherous atmosphere of courts, he was able to manoeuvre skillfully. He must have been highly ambitious and not overscrupulous when it came to securing an important commission. His biographers emphasize his impatience and speed in the conception and conduct of his work (Vasari calls him a “resolute, rapid, and excellent inventor”). This quality was combined with imaginative genius and an artful and lively curiosity. His insatiable thirst for experiment and for new knowledge forced him, as Bramante himself remarks in one of his sonnets, to “change himself” continually (“as time changes in a moment / my thought, its follower, changes too”). This trait of instability and inconstancy seems to have led him away from convention in his works to a multiplicity of attitudes and expressions. Perhaps these characteristics indicate a certain dissatisfaction, an inner melancholy, or a deep sense of solitude. He apparently never married or had children. In unceasing experiments in his work, he may have been seeking a remedy for his incurable restlessness.

Arnaldo Bruschi

Encyclopaedia Britannica
 

 

 


Donato Bramante. Christ at the Column
c. 1490
Tempera on panel, 93 x 62 cm
Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan



Donato Bramante. Man with a Halbard (detail)
c. 1481
Fresco transferred to canvas
Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan



Donato Bramante. Man with a Broadsword
c. 1481
Fresco transferred to canvas, 285 x 127 cm
Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan



Donato Bramante. Man-at-Arms
c. 1481
Fresco transferred to canvas, 90 x 113 cm
Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan



Donato Bramante. Heraclitus and Democritus
1477
Fresco transferred to canvas
Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan



Donato Bramante. Interior of a Church
c. 1480
Engraving
Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan



Donato Bramante. Interior view toward choir
1485
Fresco, height of arch 10,6 m
Santa Maria presso San Satiro, Milan



Donato Bramante. Piazza Ducale
1492-96
Vigevano


Donato Bramante. Exterior of the church
begun c. 1492
Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan



Donato Bramante. Apse and tribune
1492
Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan



Donato Bramante. Interior
1493
Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan



Donato Bramante. Umbrella vault
1493
Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan


Donato Bramante. Spiral staircase
Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican

 
 

Discuss Art

Please note: site admin does not answer any questions. This is our readers discussion only.

 
| privacy