Dictionary of Art and Artists



 

 


History of

Architecture and Sculpture

 
 

 

 
 

 
 

CONTENTS:

 
 

PART ONE
THE ANCIENT WORLD
PREHISTORIC ART
EGYPTIAN ART

ANCIENT NEAR EASTERN ART
AEGEAN ART
GREEK ART
ETRUSCAN ART
ROMAN ART
EARLY CHRISTIAN AND BYZANTINE ART

PART TWO
THE MIDDLE AGES
EARLY MEDIEVAL ART
ROMANESQUE ART
GOTHIC ART

PART THREE
THE RENAISSANCE THROUGH THE ROCOCO
LATE GOTHIC
THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
THE HIGH RENAISSANCE IN ITALY
MANNERISM AND OTHER TRENDS
THE RENAISSANCE IN THE NORTH
THE BAROQUE IN ITALY AND SPAIN
THE BAROQUE IN FLANDERS AND HOLLAND
THE BAROQUE
THE ROCOCO

PART FOUR
THE MODERN WORLD
NEOCLASSICISM AND ROMANTICISM
REALISM AND IMPRESSIONISM
POST-IMPRESSIONISM, SYMBOLISM, AND ART NOUVEAU

PART FIVE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY
TWENTIETH-CENTURY SCULPTURE
TWENTIETH-CENTURY ARCHITECTURE


INDEX
FIGURES
 

 
 

 

CHAPTER TWO
 

THE EARLY RENAISSANCE IN ITALY


SCULPTURE - Part 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20

ARCHITECTURE - Part 1, Part 2

PAINTING - Part 1

ARCHITECTURE - Part 1

SCULPTURE - 1,
2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8

PAINTING - Part 1
 
 


Architecture
 

BRUNELLESCHI.





Dome of the Cathedral. 1420-36. Duomo, Florence
BRUNELLESCHI'S dome for the Duomo of Florence, Santa Maria del Fiore


Lantern on the Duomo. 1436-70. Duomo, Florence



Façade. 1419-26. Ospedale degli Innocenti, Florence



Façade. 1419-26. Ospedale degli Innocenti, Florence



Loggia. 1419-26. Ospedale degli Innocenti, Florence
Portico. 1419-26. Ospedale degli Innocenti, Florence


View of the nave. 1444-46. Santo Spirito, Florence



Interior. 1444-46. Santo Spirito, Florence


MICHELOZZO.

The massive "Roman" style of the church of Sta. Maria degli Angeli may explain the great disappointment of Brunelleschi's final years: the rejection by his old patrons, the Medici, of his design for their new palace. The family had risen, since the 1420s, to such power that they were in practice, if not in theory, the rulers of Florence. For that very reason they thought it prudent to avoid any ostentation that might antagonize the public. If Brunelleschi's plan for their palace followed the style of Sta. Maria degli Angeli, it probably had such Imperial Roman magnificence that the Medici could not safely afford so grand an edifice.

They awarded the commission to a younger and much less distinguished architect, Michelozzo
(1396-1472); actual construction began in 1444, two years before Brunelleschi's death. Michelozzo's design for the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi (fig. 589) still recalls the fortresslike Florentine palaces of old (the windows on the ground floor were added by Michelangelo 75 years later), but the type has been transformed by Brunelleschian principles (compare fig. 483). The three stories are in a graded sequence, each complete in itself. The lowest is built of rough-hewn, "rustic" masonry like the Palazzo Vecchio; the second has smooth-surfaced blocks with "rusticated" (indented) joints; and the third an unbroken surface. On top of the structure rests, like a lid, a strongly projecting cornice inspired by those of Roman temples, emphasizing the finality of the three stories.



589. MICHELOZZO. Palazzo Medici-Riccardi, Florence. Begun 1444
 

 


Michelozzo

Michelozzo, in full Michelozzo di Bartolommeo, Michelozzo also spelled Michelozzi (born 1396, Florence [Italy]—died 1472, Florence), architect and sculptor, notable in the development of Florentine Renaissance architecture.

Michelozzo studied with the celebrated sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti, in whose workshop he acquired the skills of a bronze founder. After 1420 they collaborated on the “St. Matthew” for the church of Or San Michele, Florence. In 1427 Michelozzo and the sculptor Donatello established a partnership, active until 1438, to build several architectural-sculptural tombs. They also collaborated on the pulpit (designed 1428) in Prato cathedral.

Throughout his career Michelozzo was closely associated with his principal patrons, the Medicis, and he followed Cosimo de’ Medici into exile at Venice in 1433. Upon Cosimo’s triumphant return to power in Florence in 1434, Michelozzo’s architectural career began in earnest with several important commissions. In 1436 he began the complete rebuilding of the ruined monastery of San Marco at Florence. The elegant library he built for the monastery became the model for subsequent libraries throughout 15th-century Italy. In 1444–45 he directed the similar reconstruction of the large complex of church buildings at Santissima Annunziata, also in Florence. Michelozzo also temporarily succeeded Filippo Brunelleschi as architect for the cathedral of Florence upon the latter’s death in 1446.

Michelozzo produced several innovations in the design of the Florentine palazzo, or palace. The basic plan called for a blocklike structure, usually three stories high, with a central open court. On the exterior the three stories were separated by horizontal string courses, and the rustication of the stonework was different in each story. The building was capped by a bold overhanging cornice. These features are outstanding in the palazzo that Michelozzo built in Florence for Cosimo de’ Medici (1444–59; now called the Palazzo Medici-Riccardi), one of the finest examples of early Renaissance architecture.

In his later years Michelozzo restored several villas for the Medicis and worked as an engineer in Ragusa (now Dubrovnik, Croatia) and on the Greek island of Chios.

Encyclopædia Britannica

 



 


Fra Giocondo


Fra Giocondo

born c. 1433, , Verona, Republic of Venice
died July 1, 1515, Rome

original name Giovanni da Verona , also called Giocondo da Verona Italian humanist, architect, and engineer, whose designs and written works signal the transition in architectural modes from early to high Renaissance.
A learned Franciscan, Fra Giocondo is said to have received an extensive humanistic education. He made an important collection of classical inscriptions and was noted by his contemporaries for his extraordinary knowledge of architectural engineering. In 1489 Alfonso, duke of Calabria, summoned Fra Giocondo to Naples, where he conducted archaeological studies, advised on fortification and road building, and may have helped design the gardens of Giuliano's palazzo, Poggio Reale.
In 1495 Fra Giocondo went to France, where he may have helped design several chateaus and laid the foundations andsupervised construction of the bridge of Notre-Dame over the Seine in Paris (1500–04). He helped introduce Italian Renaissance styles into France through his designs.
After returning to Italy, Fra Giocondo worked on fortifications and civic-engineering projects in Venice, Treviso, and Padua before being called to Rome in 1513 by Pope Leo X to aid Giuliano da Sangallo and Raphael on the building of St. Peter's. He was evidently needed for his expertise on statics, as the foundation piers of the structure were shifting and had begun to crack.
Among his written works, an annotated and illustrated edition (1511) of the Roman architect Vitruvius' treatise De architectura proved highly influential.
 


Fra Giovanni Giocondo
The Upper Storey of the Loggia del Consiglio,
Verona

1493

 

 


Biagio Rossetti

 


Biagio Rossetti
Palazzo Roverella Ferrara; 1508



Biagio Rossetti

Biagio Rossetti, (circa 1447 - 1516), was an Italian architect and urbanist from Ferrara. A military engineer since 1483, and the ducal arhictect of Ercole d'Este I, in 1492 Rossetti was assigned the project of enlarging the city of Ferrara.

Rossetti is considered the first architect in the history of urbanistics to make use of the advantages of the modern methods: balancing the humanistic principles in architecture, the real needs of the city, and local traditions. Beginning in 1495, he projected and directed construction of the defense walls around the city. After Ercole's death in 1505, Rossetti served the Cardinal Ippolito d'Este, in which role he was responsible for the creation of many notable palazzi and churches.

 

 


Biagio Rossetti
Palazzo dei Diamanti, Ferrara
1493

 


Biagio Rossetti
Palazzo dei Diamanti, Ferrara
1493

 

 
 

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