History of Photography

Introduction History of Photography (Encyclopaedia Britannica)

A World History of Photography (by Naomi Rosenblum)

The Story Behind the Pictures 1827-1991 (by Hans-Michael Koetzle)

Photographers' Dictionary
(based on "20th Century Photography - Museum Ludwig Cologne")



Photographers' Dictionary

(based on "20th Century Photography-Museum Ludwig Cologne")




Arnold Newman

(From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Arnold Abner Newman (3 March 1918, New York, NY 6 June 2006, New York, NY) was an American photographer, noted for his "environmental portraits" of artists and politicians. He was also known for his carefully composed abstract still life images.
Newman graduated high school in Miami Beach and attended the University of Miami studying painting and drawing with an introduction to Modernism. Unable to afford continuing after two years, he moved to Philadelphia, PA to work for a studio making 49-cent portraits. His time there taught the importance of interacting with his subjects and allowed him to develop his technique.
Newman returned to Florida in 1942 to manage a portrait studio in West Palm Beach. Three years later he opened his own business in Miami Beach. In 1946, Newman relocated to New York, opened Arnold Newman Studios and worked as a freelance photographer for Fortune, Life, and Newsweek.
Newman found his vision in the empathy he felt for artists and their work. Although he photographed many personalities Marlene Dietrich, John F. Kennedy, Harry S. Truman, Piet Mondrian, Pablo Picasso, Arthur Miller, Marilyn Monroe, Ronald Reagan and Mickey Mantle he maintained that even if the subject is not known, or is already forgotten, the photograph itself must still excite and interest the viewer.
Newman is often credited with being the first photographer to use so-called environmental portraiture, in which the photographer places the subject in a carefully controlled setting to capture the essence of the individual's life and work. Newman normally captured his subjects in their most familiar surroundings with representative visual elements showing their professions and personalities. A musician for instance might be photographed in their recording studio or on stage, a Senator or other politician in their office or a representative building. Using a large-format camera and tripod, he worked to record every detail of a scene.
"I didn't just want to make a photograph with some things in the background," Newman told American Photo magazine in an interview. "The surroundings had to add to the composition and the understanding of the person. No matter who the subject was, it had to be an interesting photograph. Just to simply do a portrait of a famous person doesn't mean a thing."
Newman's best-known images were in black and white, although he often photographed in color. His black and white portrait of Igor Stravinsky seated at a grand piano became his signature image, even though it was rejected by the magazine that gave the assignment to Newman. He was one of the few photographers allowed to make a portrait of the famously camera-shy Henri Cartier-Bresson.
Among Newman's best-known color images is an eerie portrait that shows convicted former Nazi slave labor boss Alfried Krupp in one of Krupp's factories.
Newman taught photography at Cooper Union for many years.


Marilyn Monroe


Pablo Picasso


Alfried Krupp


Andy Warhol


Lyndon B. Johnson


Diana Vreeland


Igor Stravinsky


Henry Miller


Ronald Reagan


General Moshe Dayan, 1967, Israel


Ansel Adams


Zero Mostel


Truman Capote


W. Eugene Smith


 Barnett Newman


Rupert Murdoch


Gordon Parks


President John F. Kennedy with his advisors on steps of the White House October 24, 1963 in Washington, DC.


Marilyn Monroe


Henry Luce




Truman Capote


Paul Strand


Tony Smith


Willem De Kooning with daughter Lisa and wife Elaine December


Lucas Samaras


Keith Emerson, Greg Lake, and Carl Palmer


Philip Glass


Isaac Asimov


Eric Morecambe and Ernie Wise


Georgia O'Keeffe


Georgia O'Keeffe


Andrew Wyeth


Marcel Duchamp


Architect I.M. Pei


Bill Clinton


Martin Scorsese


 Lillian Hellman


Walter Cronkite


Dr. Jonas Salk


General Moshe Dayan, 1979, Israel


Ariel Sharon, Israeli general and politician, Israel.


Jimmy Breslin


Martha Graham


Marilyn Monroe


John F. Kennedy


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